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Qualitative Data Analysis

Qualitative Data Analysis
Practical Strategies

March 2013 | 472 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd

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Written by an experienced researcher in the field of qualitative methods, this dynamic new book provides a definitive introduction to analysing qualitative data.

It is a clear, accessible and practical guide to each stage of the process, including:

- Designing and managing qualitative data for analysis

- Working with data through interpretive, comparative, pattern and relational analyses

- Developing explanatory theory and coherent conclusions, based on qualitative data.

The book pairs theoretical discussion with practical advice using a host of examples from diverse projects across the social sciences. It describes data analysis strategies in actionable steps and helpfully links to the use of computer software where relevant.

This is an exciting new addition to the literature on qualitative data analysis and a must-read for anyone who has collected, or is preparing to collect, their own data.

Foundations for Thinking and Working Qualitatively
Thinking Qualitatively  
Thinking Methods (and methodology)  
Working Qualitatively  
Working Qualitatively - Using Software  
Foundations for Working Qualitatively  
Working Qualitatively: Implications for Analysis  
Writing About Foundations  
Further Reading  
Designing for Analysis
Design-giving Form to Ideas  
Focusing the Study  
Designing for Data That Can Be Analysed  
Planning for Quality and Credibility of Conclusions  
Putting It All Together  
Writing About Design  
Further reading  
Managing and Preparing Data for Analysis
Before Data Collection  
Keeping Organised, Available and Usable Data Records  
Recording and Preparing Data for Analysis  
The Importance of Context  
Recording Sample Details for Analysis  
Checks and Balances for Data  
Managing Relationships in the Research Team  
Writing About Data Management  
Read, Reflect and Connect: Initial Explorations of Data
Read, and Read Again  
Write As You Read  
Purposeful Play-preliminary Explorations of Each Data Source  
Explore the Storylines  
Exploring Context  
Identify Relevant Categories and Concepts  
Involving Participants in Early Analysis  
Re-focus, Ready For the Next Phase  
Writing About Preliminary Analysis  
Further reading  
Codes and Coding: Principles and Practice
Using Codes to Work With Data  
Practical Tools for Coding  
Methods Decisions in Coding  
Issues of Validity and Reliability in Coding  
Managing the Process of Coding  
A Final Reminder - Codes and Coding in Context  
Writing About Coding Processes  
Further reading  
Naming, Organizing and Refining Codes
What's in a Name?  
Naming Broad Topic Areas  
Naming Codes to Capture Substance and Meaning  
Automating Coding  
Developing a Coding System  
Reviewing and Refining Codes and the Coding Structure  
Writing About Codes  
Exercise - Generating Codes  
Further Reading  
Alternative Approaches to Breaking Open and Connecting Data
Building on Cases  
Themes as an Alternative to Codes?  
Focus on Interaction - Working With Focus Group Data  
Focus on Stories and Accounts - Identifying Structure, Interpreting Meaning  
Focus on Discourse - The Intersubjective Space  
The Value of Case-based Approaches  
Writing About Your Use of Case-based, Thematic and Narrative Methods  
Further Reading  
Describing, Evolving and Theorizing Concepts
Describing Categories and Concepts (or themes) as a Step in Analysis  
Evolving Concepts with Analytic, Meta- or Pattern Codes  
Theorising Concepts  
Writing About Describing and Analysing Concepts  
Further Reading  
Comparative Analyses as a Means of Furthering Analysis
Why Compare?  
The Comparative Process  
Managing Data to Make Subgroup, Contextual or Case Comparisons  
Comparing Concepts or Categories Across Groups or Situations  
Comparing Cases  
Interpreting Comparative Analyses  
Writing About Comparisons  
Further Reading  
Relational Analyses
Coding and Connecting Working Together  
Investigating Relational Patterns  
Cross-case Analyses  
Identifying Patterns of Association Between Sets of Related Phenomena, Using Coded Data  
Relating Data to a Theoretical Model  
Investigating Relationships Between Specific Categories and Concepts  
Writing About Exploring and Testing Relationships in Data  
Further Reading  
If… Then… Is It Because? Developing Explanatory Models and Theories
Analytic Progression  
Explanatory Theory as a Goal of Research  
Foundations for Explanatory Theory  
Logic-based Questioning - Finding the Major Premise  
Puzzle-solving with "Conjectures and Refutations"  
Case-based Strategies  
Theoretical Development and Integration in Grounded Theory  
Visual Tools for Theory-Building  
Writing About Your Developing Theory  
Further Reading  
Developing Coherent Understanding
Coherent Understanding?  
Coherence Through Description  
Theoretical Coherence  
Coherence Through Display  
A Collection of Tips and Tricks for Bringing it Together  
Writing About Developing Coherence  
Further Reading  
Defending and Extending: Issues of Quality and Significance
The Issue of Quality  
Generalisation / Transferability  
Theoretical Extension  
Audiences and Representation  
A Final Reflection  
Writing About Quality and Significance  
Further Reading  

Pat Bazeley has achieved the almost impossible task of preparing a text that is essential for both new and experienced qualitative researchers, and one that will challenge and enlighten both audiences. This remarkably comprehensive book will most certainly move qualitative inquiry forward.
Janice Morse
College Of Nursing, University of Utah

This is one of the most insightful books ever written on qualitative data analysis, and certainly the most detailed and comprehensive. Pat Bazeley has done a magnificent job of both covering recent developments, and providing a user-friendly presentation with numerous examples. This will be an indispensable resource for qualitative researchers.
Joseph Maxwell
Graduate School of Education, George Mason University

Pat Bazeley has produced what is sure to become a core text for those working with qualitative data. She covers the whole process from first ideas through to explanatory models and theories without restricting her coverage to just one software package. This excellent book is a thorough and entertaining resource that will be of use to both the novice and the more experienced researcher.
Richard Freeman
Doctoral School, Institute of Education, University of London


'Pat Bazeley's book advances the procedures of qualitative data coding and analysis. Her work provides a highly accessible framework for both new and seasoned researchers to consider in the analysis of interview, survey, photo and video data collected in qualitative studies. This text would be a great addition to a graduate level course in qualitative research. SAGE once again demonstrates it is a reliable source of academic and discipline-specific texts, as evidenced by Pat Bazeley’s newest work in the field'

Susan Zoll
Wheelock College, Boston, Massachusetts USA

This is an amazing contribution to qualitative data analysis, it is a very thorough and scholarly book. I use it as the course text for my teaching, and as I dip in and out of your book I continue to be impressed. I actually think it stands in its own right as the best, most comprehensive book on qualitative data analysis.

Delwyn Goodrick
Faculty Member of The Evaluator's Institute

Excellent resource to support dissertation students.

Sasha Pleasance
Teacher Training, South Devon College
March 26, 2015

I didn't teach the class...It was given to somebody else

Professor Roberto Bello
Marketing , University of Lethbridge
September 23, 2014

An excellent text book for undergraduate and postgraduate students offering a comprehensive guide to analysis of data

Ms Carole Smith
Department of Behavioural Sciences, Huddersfield University
August 12, 2014

Essential for Master students preparing their Master thesis. They use it on their own and selective. Their feedbacks are very good as they consider this even valuable for their time after the Master.

Mr Wolfgang Kotowski
Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon Univ.
July 10, 2014

This is a very comprehensive textbook covering all aspects of qualitative research with very helpful tables/figures and examples. The layout is conventional but this makes it easy to follow: Part 1 covers the preliminaries in terms of theory and planning; Part 2 covers initial data analysis; Part 3 higher level analysis; Part 4 synthesis and dissemination. It is a little too advanced for undergrads but excellent for Masters and beyond. I found it easy to read and a helpful standard textbook on qualitative research.

Ms Vanessa Abrahamson
Department of Allied Health Profession, Canterbury Christ Church University
May 5, 2014

Excellent book on the topic highly recommended

Mr Sean Flanagan
Computing, Runshaw College
March 20, 2014

Because of the width of the topics a little bit confusing, on the other hand it is very in-depth, so it is interesting specially in parts. And I think it would be better not to seperate data gathering and data analysis. Not ideal for my purposes as a textbook.

Professor Dieter Kulke
Fakultät Angewandte Sozialwissenschaften, Fachhochschule Würzburg-Schweinfurt
February 28, 2014

Sample Materials & Chapters

Ch 1. Preparing the Way: Laying the Foundations for Analysis

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