Representation
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Representation

Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices

Second Edition



© 2013 | 440 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd
Since 1997 Representation has been the key go-to textbook for students learning the tools to question and critically analyze institutional and media texts and images. This long-awaited Second Edition:

• update and refreshes the approach to theories of representation by signalling key developments in the field

• addresses the emergence of new technologies and formats of representation, from the internet and the digital revolution to reality TV

• includes an entirely new chapter on celebrity culture and personalisation, to debates about representation and democracy, and involve illustrations of an intertextual nature, cutting across various technologies and formats in which 'the real' or the authentic makes an appearance

• offers new exercises, new readings, new images and examples for a new generation of students

This book will once again prove an indispensible resource for students and teachers in cultural and media studies.

Stuart Hall
THE WORK OF REPRESENTATION
Representation, Meaning and Language
Making Meaning, Representing Things  
Language and Representation  
Sharing the Codes  
Theories of Representation  
The Language of Traffic Lights  
Summary  
Saussure's Legacy
The Social Part of Language  
Critique of Saussure's Model  
Summary  
From Language to Culture: Linguistics to Semiotics
Myth Today  
Discourse, Power and the Subject
From Language to Discourse  
Historicizing Discourse: Discursive Practices  
From Discourse to Power/Knowledge  
Summary: Foucault and Representation  
Charcot and the Performance of Hysteria  
Where is the 'Subject'?
How to Make Sense of Velasquez' Las Meninas  
The Subject of/in Representation  
Conclusion: Representation, Meaning and Language Reconsidered
READING A: Norman Bryson, 'Language, reflection and still life'  
READING B: Roland Barthes, 'The world of wrestling'  
READING C: Roland Barthes, 'Myth today'  
READING D: Roland Barthes, 'Rhetoric of the image'  
READING E: Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, New reflections on the revolution of our time  
READING F: Elaine Showalter, 'The performance of hysteria'  
Frances Bonner
RECORDING REALITY: DOCUMENTARY FILM AND TELEVISION
Introduction
What Do We Mean By 'Documentary'?
Non-fiction Texts  
Defining Documentary  
Types of Documentary
Categorising Documentary  
Alternative Categories  
Ethical Documentary Film-making  
Dramatisation and the Documentary
Scripting and Re-enactment in the Documentary  
Docudrama  
Documentary - An Historic Genre?
'Postdocumentary'?  
Docusoaps  
Reality TV  
Natural History Documentaries
Documenting Animal Life  
Conclusion
READING A: Nichols Bill, 'The Qualities of Voice'  
READING B: John Corner, 'Performing the real: documentary diversions'  
READING C: Derek Bousé, 'Historia Fabulosus'  
Henrietta Lidchi
THE POETICS AND THE POLITICS OF EXHIBITING OTHER CULTURES
Introduction
Establishing Definitions, Negotiating Meanings, Discerning Objects
Introduction  
What is a 'Museum'?  
What is an 'Ethnographic Museum'?  
Objects and Meanings  
The Uses of Text  
Questions of Context  
Summary  
Fashioning Cultures: The Poetics of Exhibiting
Introduction  
Introducing Paradise  
Paradise Regained  
Structuring Paradise  
Paradise: The Exhibit as Artefact  
The Myths of Paradise  
Summary  
Captivating Cultures: The Politics of Exhibiting
Introduction  
Knowledge and Power  
Displaying Others  
Museums and the Construction of Culture  
Colonial Spectacles  
Summary  
Devising New Models: Museums and Their Futures
Introduction  
Anthropology and Colonial Knowledge  
The Writing of Anthropological Knowledge  
Collections as Partial Truths  
Museums and Contact Zones  
Art, Artefact and Ownership  
Conclusion
READING A: John Tradescant the younger, 'Extracts from the Musaeum Tradescantianum'  
READING B: Elizabeth A. Lawrence, 'His very silence speaks: the horse who survived Custer's Last Stand'  
READING C: Michael O'Hanlon, 'Paradise: portraying the New Guinea Highlands'  
READING D: James Clifford, 'Paradise'  
READING E: Annie E. Coombes, 'Material culture at the crossroads of knowledge: the case of the Benin "bronzes'"  
READING F: John Picton, 'To see or Not To See! That is the Question'  
Stuart Hall
THE SPECTACLE OF THE 'OTHER'
Introduction
Heroes or Villains?  
Why Does 'Difference' Matter?  
Racializing the 'Other'
Commodity Racism: Empire and the Domestic World  
Meanwhile, Down on the Plantation ...  
Signifying Racial 'Difference'  
Staging Racial 'Difference': 'And the Melody Lingered On...'
Heavenly Bodies  
Stereotyping as a Signifying Practice
Representation, Difference and Power  
Power and Fantasy  
Fetishism and Disavowal  
Contesting a Recialized Regime of Representation
Reversing the Stereotypes  
Positive and Negative Images  
Through the Eye of Representation  
Conclusion
READING A: Anne McClintock, 'Soap and commodity spectacle'  
READING B: Richard Dyer, 'Africa'  
READING C: Sander Gilman, 'The deep structure of stereotypes'  
READING D: Kobena Mercer, 'Reading racial fetishism'  
Sean Nixon
EXHIBITING MASCULINITY
Introduction
Conceptualizing Masculinity
Plural Masculinities  
Thinking Relationally  
Invented Categories  
Summary  
Discourse and Representation
Discourse, Power/Knowledge and the Subject  
Visual Codes of Masculinity
'Street Style'  
'Italian-American'  
'Conservative Englishness'  
Summary  
Spectatorship and Subjectivization
Psychoanalysis and Subjectivity  
Spectatorship  
The Spectacle of Masculinity  
The Problem with Psychoanalysis and Film Theory  
Techniques of the Self  
Consumption and Spectatorship
Sites of Representation  
Just Looking  
Spectatorship, Consumption and the 'New Man'  
Conclusion
READING A: Steve Neale, 'Masculinity as spectacle'  
READING B: Sean Nixon, 'Technologies of looking: retailing and the visual'  
Christine Gledhill with Vicky Ball
GENRE AND GENDER: THE CASE OF SOAP OPERA
Introduction
Representation and Media Fictions
Fiction and Everyday Life  
Fiction as Entertainment  
But is it Good For You?  
Mass Culture and Gendered Culture
Women's Culture and Men's Culture  
Images of Women vs. Real Women  
Entertainment as a Capitalist Industry  
Dominant Ideology, Hegemony and Cultural Negotiation  
The Gendering of Cultural Forms: High Culture vs. Mass Culture  
Genre, Representation and Soap Opera
The Genre System  
The Genre Product  
Genre and Mass-produced Fiction  
Genre as Standardization and Differentiation  
The Genre Product as Text  
Genres and Binary Differences  
Genre Boundaries  
Signification and Reference  
Cultural Verisimilitude, Generic Gerisimilitude and Realism  
Media Production and Struggles for Hegemony  
Summary  
Genres for Women: Te Case of Soap Opera
Genre, Soap Opera and Gender  
The Invention of Soap Opera  
Women's Culture  
Soap Opera as Women's Genre  
Soap Opera's Binary Oppositions  
Serial Form and Gender Representation  
Soap Opera's Address to the Female Audience  
Talk vs. Action  
Soap Opera's Serial World  
Textual Address and the Construction of Subjects  
The Ideal Spectator  
Female Reading Competence  
Cultural Competence and the Implied Reader of the Text  
The Social Audience  
Conclusion
Soap Opera: A Woman's Form No More?  
Dissolving Genre Boundaries and Gendered Negotiations  
READING A: Tania Modleski, 'The search for tomorrow in today's soap operas'  
READING B: Charlotte Brunsdon, 'Crossroads: notes on soap opera'  
READING C: Su Holmes and Deborah Jermyn 'Why not Wife Swap?  
Index

Sample Materials & Chapters

Representation: The Work of Representation


This is simply a magnificent collection of chapters, laced together under the guiding light of Stuart Hall's outstanding scholarship. The chapters each exemplify the very best modes of cultural studies writing, theoretically informed, lucid, vividly alive and relevant to students and to general readers across the arts, humanities and social sciences. New material by Stuart Hall is particularly welcome, and will be much appreciated given his key role in the development of post-colonial as well as cultural studies. In particular we see Hall lay out the conceptual groundwork for an extensive study of the media from the viewpoint of 'race' and ethnicity.
Angela McRobbie
Professor of Communications, Goldsmiths, University of London


The second edition of Representation should enable it to speak to new generations of students and to continue to serve as the authoritative introduction to the theories and politics of meaning and representation in cultural studies. Anyone interested in these matters, whether student, teacher or simply curious intellect, will be glad for the time spent reading this book.
Lawrence Grossberg
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Senior Editor of the journal Cultural Studies


How do cultures meet, and what images of culture do we rely on to inform those differences across distances? These are some of the very real issues student face in addressing living and working across cultures. This text is helpful as a reference guide to understanding popular culture, and therefore media more broadly.

Dr Diepiriye Kuku-Siemons
Northampton Business School, Northampton University
June 29, 2015

Great book but covers only a little of what we look at. It has very relevant chapters for our studies.

Mr FRED HANNAH
Media Studies, Cardonald College
May 19, 2015

The module will not be running in the academic session 2015-16. Next time it does, I will use the book as supplemental reading - as it was used in 2014-15. The book is comprehensive and accessible for students - a great text.

Dr Carol Ekinsmyth
Dept of Geography, Portsmouth University
February 27, 2015

Hall's work has, in the past few years, risen to become an instrumental account of the cultural and symbolic nature of social interactions underlying the very ways in which we understand our world. This volume is true to his heritage: precise, in-depth, and recommended for all, both the experienced and the novice.

Professor Pedro Neto
Audiovisual and Multimedia, School of Communication and Media
February 21, 2015

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