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Research Methods and Statistics
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Research Methods and Statistics
An Integrated Approach



© 2017 | 488 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

This innovative text offers a completely integrated approach to teaching research methods and statistics by presenting a research question accompanied by the appropriate methods and statistical procedures needed to address it. Research questions and designs become more complex as chapters progress, building on simpler questions to reinforce student learning. Using a conversational style and research examples from published works, this comprehensive book walks readers through the entire research process and includes ample pedagogical support for SPSS, Excel, and APA style.

 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
Section I- Foundations of Design and Analysis
 
Chapter 1- The Scientific Method
Empirical Data  
Step 1: Ask a Question  
Choose a Topic  
Ask a Simple Question  
Step 2: Read the Published Literature  
Locate Research  
Choose a Specific Question  
Step 3: Create a Method  
Step 4: Collect and Analyze Data  
Step 5: Answer the Research Question  
Step 6: Share Your Results  
Research in Psychology: APA Style  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Chapter 2- Ethical Research
Ethical Treatment of Participants  
Assessing Risk to Participants  
Literature Review  
Hypothesis  
The Sample  
Method  
Statistics and the Data  
Benefits  
Risk  
Appendices  
Personnel  
Certification of Ethics Training  
Deception  
Testing of Special Populations  
Medical Procedures  
Animal Research  
Informed Consent  
Treating Participants Ethically  
Ethics After Testing Participants  
Data Entry  
Data Analysis  
Writing a Presentation or Manuscript  
Authorship Issues  
Presenting and Publishing Research  
Who Is Harmed by Unethical Behavior?  
Ethical Data-Collection Methods  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Chapter 3- Research Designs and Variables
Correlational Design  
Longitudinal Studies  
Cross-Sectional Studies  
Experimental Design  
Independent Variable  
Dependent Variable  
Cause and Effect  
Random Assignment  
Extraneous Variables  
Internal Validity  
Levels of Measurement  
Nominal Variable  
Ordinal Variable  
Interval Variable  
Ratio Variable  
Why Do We Care?  
Summarizing Variables: Central Tendency  
Mode  
Median  
Mean  
Summarizing Variables: Variability  
Range  
Standard Deviation  
SPSS: Summarizing Variables  
Nominal Data  
Ordinal Data  
Interval and Ratio Data  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
Reference  
 
Chapter 4- Learning About a Population From a Sample
Selecting a Sample  
Random Sampling  
Cluster Sampling  
Stratified Random Sampling  
Convenience Sampling  
Bias in a Sample  
Inferential Statistics  
Sampling Error  
Probability  
Hypothesis Testing  
Significance  
p-values and Effect Size  
Power and Sample Size  
Degrees of Freedom  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
 
Section II- Categorical Variables and Simple Frequency
 
Chapter 5- One Variable With Frequency Data
Research Design: Categorizing Participants  
One-Way Chi Square With Equal Expected Frequencies  
SPSS: One-Way Chi Square With Equal Expected Frequencies  
Effect Size: Cohen’s w  
APA Style for the One-Way Chi Square With Equal Expected Frequencies  
Power  
One-Way Chi Square With Unequal Expected Frequencies  
SPSS: One-Way Chi Square With Unequal Expected Frequencies  
APA Style for the One-Way Chi Square With Unequal Expected Frequencies  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Chapter 6- Two Variables With Frequency Data
Research Design: Two Categorical Variables  
Two-Way Chi Square: 2 × 3 Design  
Power  
SPSS: 2 × 3 Chi Square  
Effect Size: Contingency Coefficient and Cramer’s V  
APA Style for the 2 × 3 Chi Square  
Two-Way Chi Square: 2 × 2 Design  
Effect Size: Phi Coefficient  
SPSS: 2 × 2 Chi Square  
APA Style for the 2 × 2 Chi Square  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Section III- Research Without Grouping
 
Chapter 7- Examining Relationships
Pearson’s r: Seeking a Relationship  
SPSS: Pearson’s r (Seeking a Relationship)  
Two-Tailed Test  
One-Tailed Test  
Power  
Graphs as Figures: Scatterplot  
APA Style for Pearson’s r: Correlational Design  
Pearson’s r: Seeking Cause and Effect  
Previewing Data With a Scatterplot  
SPSS: Pearson’s r (Seeking Cause and Effect)  
Effect Size: Coefficient of Determination  
APA Style for Pearson’s r: Experimental Design  
Inaccurate Pearson’s r  
When Pearson’s r Falsely Shows No Relationship  
Outliers That Weaken Pearson’s r  
Nonlinear Relationship  
Restriction of Range  
When Pearson’s r Falsely Shows a Relationship  
Restriction of Range on a Curvilinear Relationship  
Outliers That Strengthen Pearson’s r  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Chapter 8- Scale Development
Pearson’s r and Reliability of Measures  
Test-Retest Reliability  
Alternate-Forms Reliability  
Split-Half Reliability  
Cronbach’s Alpha and Reliability of Measures  
SPSS: Scoring and Interpreting Measures  
Reverse Scoring Items  
Cronbach’s Alpha on SPSS  
Scoring a Measure  
Reliability With Subjective Measures: Interrater Reliability  
Pearson’s r and Validity  
Face Validity  
Content Validity  
Convergent Construct Validity  
Discriminant Construct Validity  
Predictive Validity  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Chapter 9- Prediction
Prediction and Correlation  
Linear Regression: Prediction Using One Predictor  
Correlation First  
Linear Regression  
Error in Predictions  
SPSS: Linear Regression  
Effect Size: Cohen’s f 2  
APA Style for Linear Regression  
Power  
Multiple Linear Regression: Prediction With Two Predictors  
SPSS: Multiple Linear Regression  
APA Style for Multiple Linear Regression  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Section IV- Grouped Designs With Independent Samples
 
Chapter 10- One Variable With Two Independent Groups
Research Design: One IV With Two Levels  
SPSS: Independent-Samples t-test With an IV  
Directional Hypothesis  
Effect Size: Cohen’s d  
Confidence Intervals  
Power  
APA Style for the Independent-Samples t-test: Experimental Design  
Graphs as Figures: Bar Graph  
Outliers  
Using a Quasi-IV to Establish a Relationship  
SPSS: Independent-Samples t-test With a Quasi-IV  
APA Style for the Independent-Samples t-test: Correlational Design  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Chapter 11- One Variable With More Than Two Independent Groups
Research Design: One IV With More Than Two Levels  
SPSS: One-Way, Between-Groups ANOVA With an IV  
Effect Size: Eta Squared  
Post Hoc Comparisons  
Confidence Intervals  
Power  
APA Style for the One-Way, Between-Groups ANOVA: Experimental Design  
Analyzing a Quasi-IV With More Than Two Levels  
SPSS: One-Way, Between-Groups ANOVA With a Quasi-IV  
APA Style for the One-Way, Between-Groups ANOVA: Correlational Design  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Section V- Grouped Designs With Related Samples
 
Chapter 12- One Variable with Two Related Groups
Testing the Same People Twice  
Problems With Testing the Same People Twice  
Practice Effect  
Fatigue Effect  
History Effect  
Maturation  
Solving Order Problems by Counterbalancing  
Avoiding Confounds  
Research Design: One IV With Two Related Groups  
SPSS: Related-Samples t-test (Experimental Design)  
Confidence Intervals  
Effect Size: Cohen’s d  
APA Style for the Related-Samples t-test: Experimental Design  
Power  
Research Design: One Quasi-IV With Two Related Groups  
SPSS: Related-Samples t-test (Correlational Design)  
APA Style for the Related-Samples t-test: Correlational Design  
Research Design: Testing Different People (Matched Pairs)  
Matching Participants  
Matching in a Two-Condition Study  
The Matching Process  
SPSS: Matched-Pairs t-test  
APA Style for the Matched-Pairs t-test  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Chapter 13- One Variable With Repeated Measures: More Than Two Groups
Research Design: One IV With Repeated Measures  
SPSS: One-Way, Repeated-Measures ANOVA (Experimental Design)  
Sphericity  
Effect Size: Eta Squared  
Confidence Intervals  
Power  
APA Style for the One-Way, Repeated-Measures ANOVA: Experimental Design  
Research Design: One Quasi-IV With Repeated Measures  
SPSS: One-Way, Repeated-Measures ANOVA (Correlational Design)  
APA Style for the One-Way, Repeated-Measures ANOVA: Correlational Design  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Section VI- Advanced Design
 
Chapter 14- Two Variables With Independent Samples
Research Design: Two IVs With Independent Samples  
SPSS: Two-Way, Between-Groups ANOVA (No Significant Interaction)  
Effect Size: Eta Squared  
Post Hoc for a Main Effect  
Confidence Intervals  
Power  
Graphing a Main Effect  
APA Style for Two-Way, Between-Groups ANOVA With Main Effects  
Research Design: One IV and One Quasi-IV With Independent Groups  
SPSS: Two-Way, Between-Groups ANOVA (Significant Interaction)  
Examining the Interaction  
Post Hoc for an Interaction  
Graphing an Interaction  
APA Style for the Two-Way, Between-Groups ANOVA With an Interaction  
Summary  
Review of Terms  
Practice Items  
References  
 
Appendices
 
Appendix A- Power Analysis Table
 
Appendix B- Graphing in Excel
Scatterplots  
Bar Graphs  
Line Graphs  
Interaction Graphs  
 
Appendix C- APA-Style Manuscript Guidelines
Key Elements in APA-Style Writing  
The Basics  
Title Page  
Abstract  
Introduction  
Method  
Results  
Discussion  
References  
Tables, Figures, and Appendices  
Common Mistakes and Tips for Writing  
Example Paper With Comments  
Example Paper Without Comments  
 
Appendix D- Selected Answers to Practice Items
 
Appendix E- Glossary of Terms
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site

Calling all instructors!
It’s easy to log on to SAGE’s password-protected Instructor Teaching Site at  study.sagepub.com/wilson for complete and protected access to all text-specific Instructor Resources for Wilson and Joye's, Research Methods and Statistics. Simply provide your institutional information for verification and within 72 hours you’ll be able to use your login information for any SAGE title!

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation for lectures and class discussions.
  • The Instructor Teaching Site includes complete answers to all in-text questions.
Student Study Site
  • The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

    • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
    • Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course material.
Key features

KEY FEATURES:

  • Research methods and statistics inform each other as a research question is answered to help students understand how design and statistics work together.
  • A focus on the most commonly used statistical procedures allows more time for covering the basics that students are most likely to use in their own work, including multiple regression and two-way ANOVA.
  • Examples are based on recent empirical publications to demonstrate how research in psychology is reported.
  • A wealth of information on writing in APA style, including example papers, common mistakes, and helpful pointers, appears in Appendix C.
  • APA style method and results sections follow each example to give students valuable examples of APA style.
  • Power analysis is addressed in every example and in Appendix A.
  • SPSS screenshots in each example help students analyze results in a visually effective manner.
  • An engaging and helpful pedagogical partner, Tal, appears throughout the book to clarify and highlight key points. Tal helps make intimidating material feel approachable, and sometimes even entertaining, for students learning research methods and statistics.  



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