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Social Statistics for a Diverse Society

Social Statistics for a Diverse Society

Ninth Edition

January 2020 | 576 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

The authors are proud sponsors of the 2020 SAGE Keith Roberts Teaching Innovations Award—enabling graduate students and early career faculty to attend the annual ASA pre-conference teaching and learning workshop.

The Ninth Edition of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society continues to emphasize intuition and common sense, while demonstrating the link between the practice of statistics and important social issues. Recognizing that we live in a world characterized by a growing diversity and richness of social differences, best-selling authors Frankfort-Nachmias, Leon-Guerrero, and Davis help students learn key statistical concepts through real research examples related to the dynamic interplay of race, class, gender, and other social variables. The text also helps readers develop important skills such as problem-solving (through a rich variety of exercises), use of statistical software (both SPSS and Excel), and interpreting research literature.
Included with this title:

The password-protected Instructor Resource Site (formally known as SAGE Edge)
offers access to all text-specific resources, including a test bank and editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides. Learn more.

SAGE apologizes for a printing error in Appendix B: The Standard Normal Table in the first printing of the 9th edition. Please find a PDF of the corrected table below. Please note that all ebooks will be corrected immediately, and the print book will be corrected when it reprints.

Appendix B: The Standard Normal Table

About the Authors
CHAPTER 1 • The What and the Why of Statistics
The Research Process

Asking Research Questions

The Role of Theory

Formulating the Hypotheses

Collecting Data

Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses

Examining a Diverse Society

Learning Statistics

CHAPTER 2 • The Organization and Graphic Presentation of Data
Frequency Distributions

Proportions and Percentages

Percentage Distributions

The Construction of Frequency Distributions

Cumulative Distributions


Reading the Research Literature: Access to Public Benefits

Graphic Presentation of Data

The Pie Chart

The Bar Graph

The Histogram

The Statistical Map

The Line Graph

The Time-Series Chart

Statistics in Practice: Foreign-Born Population 65 Years and Over

CHAPTER 3 • Measures of Central Tendency
The Mode

The Median

The Mean

Reading the Research Literature: The Case of Reporting Income

Statistics in Practice: The Shape of the Distribution

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency

CHAPTER 4 • Measures of Variability
The Importance of Measuring Variability

The Index of Qualitative Variation

Statistics in Practice: Diversity in U.S. Society

The Range

The Interquartile Range

The Box Plot

The Variance and the Standard Deviation

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation

Reading the Research Literature: Community College Mentoring

CHAPTER 5 • The Normal Distribution
Properties of the Normal Distribution

An Application of the Normal Curve

The Standard Normal Distribution

The Standard Normal Table

Reading the Research Literature: Child Health and Academic Achievement

CHAPTER 6 • Sampling and Sampling Distributions
Aims of Sampling

Basic Probability Principles

Probability Sampling

The Concept of the Sampling Distribution

The Sampling Distribution of the Mean

The Central Limit Theorem

Statistics in Practice: The 2016 U.S. Presidential Election

CHAPTER 7 • Estimation
Point and Interval Estimation

Confidence Intervals for Means

Statistics in Practice: Hispanic Migration and Earnings

Confidence Intervals for Proportions

Reading the Research Literature: Women Victims of Intimate Violence

CHAPTER 8 • Testing Hypotheses
Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

Probability Values and Alpha

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis Testing With One Sample and Population Variance Unknown

Hypothesis Testing With Two Sample Means

The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Means

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing About Difference Between Means: A Summary

Statistics in Practice: Vape Use Among Teens

Hypothesis Testing With Two Sample Proportions

Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Hypothesis Testing

CHAPTER 9 • Bivariate Tables
How to Construct a Bivariate Table

How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table

Reading the Research Literature: Racial Disparities and Educational Attainment

The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship


Reading the Research Literature: The Digital Divide

CHAPTER 10 • The Chi-Square Test and Measures of Association
The Concept of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test

The Concept of Statistical Independence

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With Chi-Square

Statistics in Practice: Respondent and Mother Education

Proportional Reduction of Error

Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Cramer’s V: A Chi-Square-Related Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Gamma and Kendall’s Tau-b: Symmetrical Measures of Association for Ordinal Variables

Reading the Research Literature: India’s Internet-Using Population

CHAPTER 11 • Analysis of Variance
Understanding Analysis of Variance

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With ANOVA

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Statistics in Practice: The Ethical Consumer

Reading the Research Literature: College Satisfaction Among Latino Students

CHAPTER 12 • Regression and Correlation
The Scatter Diagram

Linear Relationships and Prediction Rules

A Negative Relationship: Age and Internet Hours per Week

Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions

Testing the Significance of r2 Using ANOVA

Statistics in Practice: Multiple Regression and ANOVA

Reading the Research Literature: Academic Intentions and Support

Appendix A. Table of Random Numbers
Appendix B. The Standard Normal Table
Appendix C. Distribution of t
Appendix D. Distribution of Chi-Square
Appendix E. Distribution of F
Appendix F. A Basic Math Review
Learning Check Solutions
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises


Instructor Site

Online resources included with this text

The online resources for your text are available via the password-protected Instructor Resource Site, which offers access to all text-specific resources, including a test bank and editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides.
Student Study Site

The open-access Student Study Site makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime. It offers flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, as well as learning objectives that reinforce the most important material.

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My department would like me to choose between 3-4 different texts. The book is very comprehensive and loads of practical examples related to social work evaluation.

Thalia Williams
School Of Social Welfare, Univ Of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
August 30, 2020

Adopted this book. Seems appropriately leveled for my classes at Queens College CUNY.

Dr Eric Graig
Sociology Dept, Cuny Queens College
October 13, 2020

I liked that the fact that Excel had been incorporated into demonstrating and learning the database and analysis tools available in Excel. SPSS is costly and not always available to students.

Candace McCreary
Sociology, College Of Dupage
March 6, 2021
Key features
  • New examples throughout the book—mostly taken from news stories, government reports, public opinion polls, scholarly research, and the National Opinion Research Center’s General Social Survey—are formulated to emphasize to students that we live in a world in which statistical arguments are common.

  • Statistical concepts and procedures are illustrated with the most current data and research, providing a clear sense of how questions about important social issues can be studied with various statistical techniques.

  • New computer demonstrations and practice problems utilizing Microsoft Excel offer instructors the flexibility to use SPSS and/or Excel—or no computer software at all. 

  • SPSS and Excel video demonstrations also accompany the edition. Instructors will be able to embed these video demonstrations in their online course management systems (Canvas, D2L, Blackboard, etc.) and/or offer them as supplementary material for students who are new to statistical software and would benefit from tutorials that they can watch as many times as needed. 



  • An informal writing style–coupled with the use of real-world examples–makes this book more accessible and engaging for students. 

  • An emphasis on race, class, gender and other aspects of social diversity sets the book apart from others in the field and mirrors the major emphasis in the social sciences today. 

  • Learning Checks keyed to the most important topics are carefully placed in the chapters to aid students’ self-assessment. 

  • Statistics In Practice inserts throughout the book show the real-world application of the techniques and concepts introduced. 

  • A Closer Look boxes highlight statistical issues that are important for future researchers. 
  • Reading the Research Literature sections in most chapters help students read and interpret statistical information in professional and scholarly publications. 

  • A wealth of real-world exercises at the end of chapters provide students with opportunities to practice both calculating and interpreting statistics. 

  • The text is accompanied by SPSS and Excel datasets, including a global dataset measuring social, economic and political characteristics of 70 countries.   

  • Answers to odd numbered exercises are provided at the back of the text. 

  • Optional SPSS and Excel examples and output are used throughout the book in conjunction with General Social Survey data. 

  • A demonstration of a related SPSS and Excel procedure, along with a set of exercises, appears at the end of each chapter. 

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