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Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice
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Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice

Second Edition


© 2016 | 432 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

A Beginner’s Guide to Statistics in Criminology and Criminal Justice Careers

 

Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice, Second Edition is an introductory statistics text for undergraduate criminology and criminal justice majors. The topics and engaging presentation style are targeted to students who have a basic background in algebra but who have had little or no exposure to the study of statistics. The overarching goals of the book are to demonstrate to students that statistics used in criminal justice can be enlightening and eye-opening and, that pre-conceived notions of their academic inadequacies coming into the course are false.

 

The fully updated Second Edition includes new learning objectives and learning checks to help guide students through the material and ensure content understanding and retention. Coverage of the fundamental areas in statistics begins with descriptive statistics, moves into probability, and ends with regression to make the content easier for students to follow. By use of real data and research, emphasis is placed on balancing thoroughness with ease of understanding in order to show students the importance and relevance of statistics in their future criminal justice careers.

 
Preface to the Second Edition
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
Part 1-Descriptive Statistics
 
Chapter 1-Introduction to the Use of Statistics in Criminal Justice and Criminology
Science: Basic Terms and Concepts  
Types of Scientific Research in Criminal Justice and Criminology  
Software Packages for Statistical Analysis  
Organization of the Book  
Chapter 1 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 2-Types of Variables and Levels of Measurement
Units of Analysis  
Independent and Dependent Variables  
Relationships Between Variables: A Cautionary Note  
Levels of Measurement  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 2 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 3-Organizing, Displaying, and Presenting Data
Data Distributions  
Graphs and Charts  
Grouped Data  
SPSS  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 3 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 4-Measures of Central Tendency
The Mode  
The Median  
The Mean  
Using the Mean and Median to Determine Distribution Shape  
Deviation Scores and the Mean as the Midpoint of the Magnitudes  
SPSS  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 4 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 5-Measures of Dispersion
The Variation Ratio  
The Range  
The Variance  
The Standard Deviation  
The Standard Deviation and the Normal Curve  
SPSS  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 5 Review Problems  
 
Part 2-Probability and Distributions
 
Chapter 6-Probability
Discrete Probability: The Binomial Probability Distribution  
Continuous Probability: The Standard Normal Curve  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 6 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 7-Population, Sample, and Sampling Distributions
Empirical Distributions: Population and Sample Distributions  
Theoretical Distributions: Sampling Distributions  
Sample Size and the Sampling Distribution: The z and t Distributions  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 7 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 8-Point Estimates and Confidence Intervals
The Level of Confidence: The Probability of Being Correct  
Confidence Intervals for Means with Large Samples  
Confidence Intervals for Means with Small Samples  
Confidence Intervals With Proportions and Percentages  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 8 Review Problems  
 
Part 3-Hypothesis Testing
 
Chapter 9-Hypothesis Testing: A Conceptual Introduction
Sample Statistics and Population Parameters: Sampling Error or True Difference?  
Null and Alternative Hypotheses  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 9 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 10-Hypothesis Testing With Two Categorical Variables: Chi-Square
Conceptual Basis of the Chi-Square Test: Statistical Dependence and Independence  
The Chi-Square Test of Independence  
Measures of Association  
SPSS  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 10 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 11-Hypothesis Testing With Two Population Means or Proportions
Two-Population Tests for Differences Between Means: t Tests  
Two-Population Tests for Differences Between Proportions  
SPSS  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 11 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 12-Hypothesis Testing With Three or More Population Means: Analysis of Variance
ANOVA: Different Types of Variances  
When the Null Is Rejected: A Measure of Association and Post Hoc Tests  
SPSS  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 12 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 13-Hypothesis Testing With Two Continuous Variables: Correlation
Beyond Statistical Significance: Sign, Magnitude, and Coefficient of Determination  
SPSS  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 13 Review Problems  
 
Chapter 14-Introduction to Regression Analysis
One Independent Variable and One Dependent Variable: Bivariate Regression  
Adding More Independent Variables: Multiple Regression  
Ordinary Least Squares Regression in SPSS  
When the Dependent Variable Is Not Continuous and Normally Distributed: Alternatives to OLS  
Chapter Summary  
Chapter 14 Review Problems  
 
Appendix A—Review of Basic Mathematical Techniques
 
Appendix B—The Standard Normal (z) Distribution
 
Appendix C—t Distribution
 
Appendix D—Chi-Square (?²) Distribution
 
Appendix E—F Distribution
 
Glossary
 
Answers to Learning Checks
 
Answers to Review Problems
 
References
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site
The password-protected Instructor Resource Site includes the following:

·  A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.

·  Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content, features, and artwork from the book.

·  Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for use when creating the syllabi for your courses.

·  EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.

·  Web resources are included for further research and insights.

Chapter activities for individual or group projects provide lively and stimulating ideas for use in and out of class reinforce active learning




Student Study Site

The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
  • Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course material.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • Data-sets reinforce concepts from the book and provide real-world application

“Dr. Gau’s Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice text is excellent…the book is logically organized, well written, easily understandable, contains relevant examples and end-of-chapter exercises, and uses SPSS.”

Ayana Conway, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor at Virginia State University

“A nice textbook for criminal justice students who are new to statistics.  It is thorough yet concise.  The price is certainly likely to win over students.  Well done!”

Dr. Matthew D. Fetzer
Shippensburg University

“Authoritative yet, clear, succinct, and engaging. It covers all the relevant concepts, and it covers them well.”

Anthony W. Hoskin, PhD.
University of Texas of the Permian Basin

“The specific CJ examples help students to connect the material to something that is real.  It becomes more than just a math problem and instead they see it as a way to answer a specific research question in the field. This book does that better than any others I’ve seen.”

Nicole L. Smolter
California State University, Los Angeles

“I have already adopted this book, and I plan to continue using it.  I have used at least four other statistics books over the years, and this one is superior.” 

Brian Stults
Florida State University
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • New Learning Objectives have been added to the beginning of each chapter to serve as a guide and to prepare students for what they are expected to understand.
  • More coverage of probability helps students understand the logic of hypothesis testing and the practical application of statistical techniques in order to develop genuine comprehension rather than relying purely on memorization.
  • Updated with the most current research in the field to ensure the most up-to-date methods.
  • Expanded treatment of the importance of statistics within criminology and criminal justice demonstrates to students how statistics can be enlightening, eye-opening, and very useful in their future careers.  
  • Extended coverage of standard deviation as an integral part of research appears throughout.
  • A New IBM SPSS Student Version dataset can be used to answer review questions at the end of each chapter.

 

KEY FEATURES:

  • The underlying theory and logic driving statistical analyses are presented in a manner that is nonthreatening to students who have limited mathematical background. The emphasis on probability theory helps students understand the logic of hypothesis testing and of the practical application of statistical techniques so that students can develop genuine comprehension rather than relying purely on memorization.
  • In-text examples and end-of-chapter exercises use real data to demonstrate how statistics are used in criminal justice and criminology.
  • Expanded Research Example boxes include criminal justice and criminology research from  peer-reviewed journal articles that illustrate techniques covered in the chapter to show students  the practical application of those techniques.
  • Data Source boxes describe common, publicly-available data sets like the Uniform Crime Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, State Court Processing Statistics, General Social Survey, and others, and are presented to provide practical applications to offset the often-abstract topic of statistics for criminal justice students.
  • A breadth of probability coverage better acquaints students with its application to criminal justice.
  • Learning Check boxes in each chapter include short, mini-quizzes to test student comprehension of concepts presented and include an answer key in the back of the book.
  • Chapter-ending sections on SPSS can be used with one or more pared-down versions of a major data set in SPSS format.
  • Extensive end-of-chapter review questions and exercises include answers to the odd-numbered questions/exercises in the back of the book.

Visit http://study.sagepub.com/gau2e to access these valuable instructor and student resources:

  • The password-protected Instructor Teaching Site includes a test bank, PowerPoint slides, class activities, sample syllabi, audio resources, and more.
  • The open-access Student Study Site includes SAGE journal articles, recoverable data sets, SPSS® exercises, and more.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 6

Chapter 10


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For instructors

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If you require a print review copy, please call: (800) 818-7243 ext. 6140 or email textsales@sagepub.com.

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