Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics
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Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics

Sixth Edition
Experience with SAGE edge


© 2017 | 552 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
The Sixth Edition of Neil J. Salkind’s best-selling Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics eases student anxiety around an often intimidating subject with a humorous, personable, and informative approach. Salkind guides students through various statistical procedures, beginning with descriptive statistics, correlation, and graphical representation of data, and ending with inferential techniques and analysis of variance. New to this edition is an introduction to working with large data sets and videos of the author demonstrating the various statistical techniques, available via the accompanying free interactive eBook.

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A Note to the Student: Why I Wrote This Book
 
Acknowledgments
 
And Now, About the Sixth Edition
 
About the Author
 
PART I- Yippee! I’m in Statistics
 
1. Statistics or Sadistics? It’s Up to You
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Why Statistics?  
And Why SPSS?  
A 5-Minute History of Statistics  
Statistics: What It Is (and Isn’t)  
What Are Descriptive Statistics?  
What Are Inferential Statistics?  
In Other Words . . .  
What Am I Doing in a Statistics Class?  
Ten Ways to Use This Book (and Learn Statistics at the Same Time!)  
About Those Icons  
Key to Difficulty Icons  
Glossary  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
PART II- Sigma Freud and Descriptive Statistics
 
2. Means to an End: Computing and Understanding Averages
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Computing the Mean  
Computing a Weighted Mean  
Computing the Median  
Computing the Mode  
Apple Pie à la Bimodal  
When to Use What Measure of Central Tendency (and All You Need to Know About Scales of Measurement for Now)  
A Rose by Any Other Name: The Nominal Level of Measurement  
Any Order Is Fine With Me: The Ordinal Level of Measurement  
1 + 1 = 2: The Interval Level of Measurement  
Can Anyone Have Nothing of Anything? The Ratio Level of Measurement  
In Sum . . .  
Using the Computer to Compute Descriptive Statistics  
The SPSS Output  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
3. Vive la Différence: Understanding Variability
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Why Understanding Variability Is Important  
Computing the Range  
Computing the Standard Deviation  
Why n - 1? What’s Wrong With Just n?  
What’s the Big Deal?  
Computing the Variance  
The Standard Deviation Versus the Variance  
Using the Computer to Compute Measures of Variability  
The SPSS Output  
More SPSS Output  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
4. A Picture Really Is Worth a Thousand Words
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Why Illustrate Data?  
Ten Ways to a Great Figure (Eat Less and Exercise More?)  
First Things First: Creating a Frequency Distribution  
The Classiest of Intervals  
The Plot Thickens: Creating a Histogram  
The Tallyho Method  
The Next Step: A Frequency Polygon  
Cumulating Frequencies  
Other Cool Ways to Chart Data  
Bar Charts  
Column Charts  
Line Charts  
Pie Charts  
Using the Computer (SPSS, That Is) to Illustrate Data  
Creating a Histogram  
Creating a Bar Graph  
Creating a Line Graph  
Creating a Pie Chart  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
5. Ice Cream and Crime: Computing Correlation Coefficients
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
What Are Correlations All About?  
Types of Correlation Coefficients: Flavor 1 and Flavor 2  
Computing a Simple Correlation Coefficient  
A Visual Picture of a Correlation: The Scatterplot  
Bunches of Correlations: The Correlation Matrix  
Understanding What the Correlation Coefficient Means  
Using-Your-Thumb (or Eyeball) Method  
A Determined Effort: Squaring the Correlation Coefficient  
As More Ice Cream Is Eaten . . . the Crime Rate Goes Up (or Association vs. Causality)  
Using SPSS to Compute a Correlation Coefficient  
Creating a Scatterplot (or Scattergram or Whatever)  
Other Cool Correlations  
Parting Ways: A Bit About Partial Correlation  
Using SPSS to Compute Partial Correlations  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
6. Just the Truth: An Introduction to Understanding Reliability and Validity
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
An Introduction to Reliability and Validity  
What’s Up With This Measurement Stuff?  
Reliability: Doing It Again Until You Get It Right  
Test Scores: Truth or Dare?  
Observed Score = True Score + Error Score  
Different Types of Reliability  
Test–Retest Reliability  
Parallel Forms Reliability  
Internal Consistency Reliability  
Interrater Reliability  
How Big Is Big? Finally: Interpreting Reliability Coefficients  
And If You Can’t Establish Reliability . . . Then What?  
Just One More Thing  
Validity: Whoa! What Is the Truth?  
Different Types of Validity  
Content Validity  
Criterion Validity  
Construct Validity  
And If You Can’t Establish Validity . . . Then What?  
A Last Friendly Word  
Validity and Reliability: Really Close Cousins  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
PART III- Taking Chances for Fun and Profit
 
7. Hypotheticals and You: Testing Your Questions
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
So You Want to Be a Scientist . . .  
Samples and Populations  
The Null Hypothesis  
The Purposes of the Null Hypothesis  
The Research Hypothesis  
The Nondirectional Research Hypothesis  
The Directional Research Hypothesis  
Some Differences Between the Null Hypothesis and the Research  
Hypothesis  
What Makes a Good Hypothesis?  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
8. Are Your Curves Normal? Probability and Why It Counts
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Why Probability?  
The Normal Curve (a.k.a. the Bell-Shaped Curve)  
Hey, That’s Not Normal!  
More Normal Curve  
Our Favorite Standard Score: The z Score  
What z Scores Represent  
What z Scores Really Represent  
Hypothesis Testing and z Scores: The First Step  
Using SPSS to Compute z Scores  
Fat and Skinny Frequency Distributions  
Average Value  
Variability  
Skewness  
Kurtosis  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
PART IV- Significantly Different: Using Inferential Statistics
 
9. Significantly Significant: What It Means for You and Me
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
The Concept of Significance  
If Only We Were Perfect  
The World’s Most Important Table (for This Semester Only)  
More About Table 9.1  
Back to Type I Errors  
Significance Versus Meaningfulness  
An Introduction to Inferential Statistics  
How Inference Works  
How to Select What Test to Use  
Here’s How to Use the Chart  
An Introduction to Tests of Significance  
How a Test of Significance Works: The Plan  
Here’s the Picture That’s Worth a Thousand Words  
Be Even More Confident  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
10. Only the Lonely: The One-Sample Z-Test
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Introduction to the One-Sample Z-Test  
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge  
Computing the Z-Test Statistic  
So How Do I Interpret z = 2.38, p < .05?  
Using SPSS to Perform a Z-Test  
Special Effects: Are Those Differences for Real?  
Understanding Effect Size  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
11. t(ea) for Two: Tests Between the Means of Different Groups
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Introduction to the t-Test for Independent Samples  
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge  
Computing the t-Test Statistic  
Time for an Example  
So How Do I Interpret t(58) = –0.14, p > .05?  
The Effect Size and t(ea) for Two  
Computing and Understanding the Effect Size  
Two Very Cool Effect Size Calculators  
Using SPSS to Perform a t-Test  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
12. t(ea) for Two (Again): Tests Between the Means of Related Groups
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Introduction to the t-Test for Dependent Samples  
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge  
Computing the t-Test Statistic  
So How Do I Interpret t(24) = 2.45, p < .05?  
Using SPSS to Perform a t-Test  
The Effect Size for t(ea) for Two (Again)  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
13. Two Groups Too Many? Try Analysis of Variance
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Introduction to Analysis of Variance  
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge  
Different Flavors of ANOVA  
Computing the F-Test Statistic  
So How Do I Interpret F(2, 27) = 8.80, p < .05  
Using SPSS to Compute the F Ratio  
The Effect Size for One-Way ANOVA  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
14. Two Too Many Factors: Factorial Analysis of Variance—A Brief Introduction
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Introduction to Factorial Analysis of Variance  
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge  
A New Flavor of ANOVA  
The Main Event: Main Effects in Factorial ANOVA  
Even More Interesting: Interaction Effects  
Using SPSS to Compute the F Ratio  
Computing the Effect Size for Factorial ANOVA  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
15. Cousins or Just Good Friends? Testing Relationships Using the Correlation Coefficient
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Introduction to Testing the Correlation  
Coefficient  
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge  
Computing the Test Statistic  
So How Do I Interpret r(28) = .437, p < .05?  
Causes and Associations (Again!)  
Significance Versus Meaningfulness (Again, Again!)  
Using SPSS to Compute a Correlation Coefficient (Again)  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
16. Predicting Who’ll Win the Super Bowl: Using Linear Regression
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Introduction to Linear Regression  
What Is Prediction All About?  
The Logic of Prediction  
Drawing the World’s Best Line (for Your Data)  
How Good Is Your Prediction?  
Using SPSS to Compute the Regression Line  
The More Predictors the Better? Maybe  
The Big Rule(s) When It Comes to Using Multiple Predictor Variables  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
PART V- More Statistics! More Tools! More Fun!
 
17. What to Do When You’re Not Normal: Chi-Square and Some Other Nonparametric Tests
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics  
Introduction to the Goodness of Fit (One-Sample) Chi-Square  
Computing the Goodness of Fit Chi-Square Test Statistic  
So How Do I Interpret ?2 (2) = 20.6, p < .05?  
Introduction to the Test of Independence Chi-Square  
Computing the Test of Independence Chi-Square Test Statistic  
Using SPSS to Perform Chi-Square Tests  
Goodness of Fit and SPSS  
Test of Independence and SPSS  
Other Nonparametric Tests You Should Know About  
Real-World Stats  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
18. Some Other (Important) Statistical Procedures You Should Know About
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Multivariate Analysis of Variance  
Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance  
Analysis of Covariance  
Multiple Regression  
Meta-analysis  
Discriminant Analysis  
Factor Analysis  
Path Analysis  
Structural Equation Modeling  
Summary  
 
19. Data Mining: An Introduction to Getting the Most Out of Your BIG Data
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Our Sample Data Set—Who Doesn’t Love Babies?  
Counting Outcomes  
Counting With Frequencies  
Pivot Tables and Cross-Tabulation: Finding Hidden Patterns  
Creating a Pivot Table  
Modifying a Pivot Table  
Summary  
Time to Practice  
 
20. A Statistical Software Sampler
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
Selecting the Perfect Statistics Software  
What’s Out There  
First, the Free Stuff  
Time to Pay  
Summary  
 
PART VI- Ten Things (Times Two) You’ll Want to Know and Remember
 
21. The Ten (or More) Best (and Most Fun) Internet Sites for Statistics Stuff
What You Will Learn in This Chapter  
How About Studying Statistics in Stockholm  
Who’s Who and What’s Happened?  
It’s All Here  
HyperStat  
Data? You Want Data?  
More and More Resources  
Online Statistical Teaching Materials  
And, of Course, YouTube . . .  
And, Finally . . .  
 
22. The Ten Commandments of Data Collection
 
Appendix A- SPSS Statistics in Less Than 30 Minutes
 
Appendix B- Tables
 
Appendix C- Data Sets
 
Appendix D- Answers to Practice Questions
 
Appendix E- Math: Just the Basics
 
Appendix F- The Reward: The Brownie Recipe
 
Glossary
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site

SAGE edge for Instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

  • Test banks provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to ease preparation for lectures and class discussions
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring one’s course
  • Data sets accompany exercises and problems in the book.
  • Chapter-specific discussion questions help launch classroom interaction by prompting students to engage with the material and by reinforcing important content. 
  • Lively and stimulating ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group projects.
  • Multimedia content includes original SAGE videos that appeal to students with different learning styles
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically
  • A Course cartridge provides easy LMS integration
Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • A complete online action plan allows you to track your progress and enhance your learning experience
  • Learning objectives reinforce the most important material
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material
  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts
  • Multimedia content includes original SAGE videos that appeal to students with different learning styles
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter
  • Data sets accompany exercises and problems in the book.
Key features
NEW TO THIS EDITION: 

  • A new chapter on data mining using SPSS gives a brief introduction to this cutting-edge topic.
  • An accompanying interactive eBook now features demonstration videos from the author.
  • A supplemental study guide includes more examples and exercises for even more hands-on practice.
  • An abundance of new practice exercises vary in their level of application and help students master techniques and procedures.
  • New examples cover a wide range of applications from a variety of disciplines, reinforcing the many practical uses of statistics.
  • A new section in every applicable chapter, Understanding the SPSS Output, provides additional help on the how-tos of interpreting the figures in these sections.
  • A small section of effect size and its importance has been added to the coverage of each inferential statistic as appropriate.
KEY FEATURES:

  • Data sets in SPSS give students ample practice opportunities for statistical software analysis.
  • A decision tree for choosing the right statistical test (Chapter 9) provides a visual summary that is especially helpful for visual learners.
  • Helpful icons highlight information that goes beyond the regular text, offer technical ideas and tips, provide step-by-step directions for processes, reinforce important points, and show students how to use the computer to perform select statistical tests.
  • A comprehensive glossary allows students to reference important terms.
  • Appendix A offers a 30-minute tutorial on using SPSS to get students up and running quickly.
  • Appendix E provides a refresher on basic arithmetic operations and accompanying exercises to help students reinforce the basics before they get into the statistical content.
  • A free interactive eBook is available with the text to expand the learning experience.

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Chapter 9


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ISBN: 9781506333830