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Straightforward Statistics
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Straightforward Statistics

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© 2016 | 608 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Straightforward Statistics is written in plain language and connects material in a clear, logical manner to help students across the social and behavioral sciences develop a “big picture” understanding of foundational statistics. Each new chapter is purposefully connected with the previous chapter for a gradual accrual of knowledge from simple to more complex concepts—this effective, cumulative approach to statistics through logical transitions eases students into statistics and prepares them for success in more advanced quantitative coursework and their own research.

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Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics
What Is Statistics?  
Population Versus Sample  
Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics  
Sampling a Population  
Random Sampling Methods  
Simple Random Sampling  
Systematic Sampling  
Stratified Sampling  
Cluster Sampling  
Scales of Measurement  
Nominal Scale  
Ordinal Scale  
Interval Scale  
Ratio Scale  
Variable Classifications  
Discrete Versus Continuous Variables  
Independent Variables Versus Dependent Variables  
Required Mathematical Skills for This Course  
Statistical Notation  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions When Needed  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 2: Summarizing and Organizing Data
What You Know and What Is New  
Frequency Distribution Table  
Organizing and Summarizing Categorical Variables  
Organizing and Summarizing Numerical Variables  
Graphs  
Bar Graphs and Histograms  
Pie Charts  
Common Distribution Shapes  
Uniform Distribution  
Normal Distribution  
Skewed Distribution  
EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction for Calculating ?X from Frequency Table and Constructing a Bar Graph  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 3: Descriptive Statistics
What You Know and What Is New  
Measures of Central Tendency  
Mode  
Median  
Mean  
Measures of Variability  
Range  
Variance and Standard Deviation for a Population  
Variance and Standard Deviation for a Sample  
Boxplot: 5-Number Summary  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 4: Standard Z Scores
What You Know and What Is New  
Standard Z Scores  
Z Scores for a Population  
Z Scores for a Sample  
Empirical Rule for Variables With a Normal Distribution  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 5: Basic Principles of Probability
What You Know and What Is New  
Basic Terms and Mathematical Operations in Probability  
Basic Terms in Probability  
Mathematical Operations for Probabilities  
Binomial Probability Distribution  
Practical Probability Application: Winning the Mega-Million Lottery  
The Dice Game  
Linkage Between Probability and Z Score in Normal Distribution  
Probabilities, Z Scores, and Raw Scores  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 6: The Central Limit Theorem
What You Know and What Is New  
Sampling Error  
Sampling Distribution of the Sample Means and the Central Limit Theorem  
The Law of Large Numbers  
Relationships Between Sample Means and the Population Mean  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 7: Hypothesis Testing
What You Know and What Is New  
Type I Error and Type II Error  
The Four-Step Process to Conduct a Hypothesis Test  
Step 1: Explicitly State the Pair of Hypotheses  
Step 2: Identify the Rejection Zone for the Hypothesis Test  
Step 3: Calculate the Test Statistic  
Step 4: Make the Correct Conclusion  
Examples of the Four-Step Hypothesis Test in Action  
Directional Versus Non-Directional Hypothesis Testing  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 8: One-Sample t Test When Sigma Is Unknown
What You Know and What Is New  
The Unknown Sigma and Conducting the One-Sample t Test  
The t-Distribution, a Specific Curve for Every Degree of Freedom  
Confidence Intervals  
Point Estimate  
Interval Estimate  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 9: Independent Samples t Tests
What You Know and What Is New  
Introducing Independent Samples and the Decision Rule on Equal Variances  
Decision Rule for Equal Variances Assumed Versus Equal Variances Not Assumed  
Equal Variances Assumed  
Equal Variances Not Assumed  
Using SPSS to Run Independent-Samples t Tests  
Confidence Intervals of the Mean Difference  
Effect Sizes  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 10: Dependent-Sample t Test
What You Know and What Is New  
Introducing Dependent-Sample t Tests  
Calculations and the Hypothesis-Testing Process in Dependent-Sample t Tests  
Mean, Standard Deviation, and Standard Error of the Differences  
Hypothesis Testing for Dependent-Sample t Tests  
Confidence Interval of the Differences  
Effect Size for the Dependent-Sample t Test  
Using SPSS to Run Dependent-Sample t Tests  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 11: Correlation
What You Know and What Is New  
Pearson’s Correlation  
Pearson’s Correlation Formulas  
Describing and Interpreting Pearson’s r  
Showing the Pearson’s Correlation in Action  
Hypothesis Testing for the Pearson’s Correlation  
Interpretations and Assumptions of Pearson’s Correlation  
Interpretations of Pearson’s Correlation  
Assumptions of Pearson’s Correlation  
Special Types of Correlation  
Spearman’s Rank Correlation  
Partial Correlation Formula  
Point Biserial Correlation  
EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction for Constructing a Scatterplot  
EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction on Calculating Pearson’s r  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 12: Simple Regression
What You Know and What Is New  
Y-Intercept and Slope  
Hypothesis Testing With Simple Regression  
Standard Error of the Estimate  
The Mathematical Relationship Between Pearson’s r and the Regression Slope, b  
Assumptions for Simple Regression  
Step-by-Step Instructions on SPSS  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 13: One-Way Analysis of Variance
What You Know and What Is New  
Introducing ANOVA  
Between-Group Variance and Within-Group Variance  
Sum of Squares Between  
Sum of Squares Within  
Degrees of Freedom for Between Groups (dfB) and Within Groups (dfW)  
Hypothesis Testing With ANOVA  
Post Hoc Comparisons  
Statistical Assumptions of an ANOVA  
Effect Size for One-Way ANOVA  
Step-by-Step Instructions for Using SPSS to Run an ANOVA  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Chapter 14: Chi-Square Tests for Goodness-of-Fit and Independence
What You Know and What Is New  
The Chi-Square  
Expected Frequency  
Expected Frequency Under a One-Way Frequency Table  
Expected Frequency Under a Two-Way Contingency Table  
Goodness-of-Fit Tests  
Hypothesis Testing With the Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test  
Chi-Square for Independence  
Hypothesis Testing With the Chi-Square Test for Independence  
Exercise Problems  
Solutions  
Chapter Resources  
What You Learned  
Key Words  
Learning Assessment  
 
Appendix A. The Standard Normal Distribution Table (Z Table)
 
Appendix B. The t-Distribution Table (t Table)
 
Appendix C. The F Table
 
Appendix D. The Critical Values of Pearson's Correlation Table (r Table)
 
Appendix E. The Cirtical Values for Spearman's Rank Correlation Table (rS Table)
 
Appendix F. The Critical Values for the Point Biserial Correlation Table (rpbi Table)
 
Appendix G. The Critical Values of the Studentized Range Distribution Table (q Table)
 
Appendix H. The Critical Values for the Chi-Square Tests (Chi2 Table)
 
Answers to the Learning Assessments
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site

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 SAGE edge for Instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

  • A Course cartridge provides easy LMS integration
  • Test banks provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring one’s course
  • Multimedia content appeals to students with different learning styles
Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material
  • A complete online action plan allows you to track your progress and enhance your learning experience
  • Learning objectives help reinforce the most important material
  • Multimedia content appeals to students with different learning styles

“This book does an admirable job of presenting the rationale for the formulas, which should help the student understand the material more deeply. Additionally, the examples used by the author do a nice job of helping students walk through the process of applying the formulas to address research hypotheses.”

Arin M. Connell
Case Western Reserve University

“I have been impressed with the author’s ability to explain statistical constructs in a straightforward manner.”

James E. Lennon
New Jersey City University
Key features

KEY FEATURES:

  • Chapter-opening Learning Objectives clearly identify what students should be able to accomplish after reading and studying each chapter.
  • What You Know and What is New sections connect foundational concepts learned in previous chapters with new material for a logical buildup of learning.
  • Pop Quizzes with answers throughout chapters allow students to test their knowledge about topics presented.
  • Exercise Problems and Solutions with Excel Step-by-Step Instructions guide students through applying concepts learned to find answers.
  • You Must Remember This boxes help students identify and retain important concepts.
  • Chapter Resources at the end of chapters provide tools including key terms and definitions, along with practice questions for easy review of the material.
  • Current, relevant, and diverse examples throughout show the application of statistics to meaningful real-life situations.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 7


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