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The American Journal of Sports Medicine
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The American Journal of Sports Medicine

2016 Impact Factor: 5.673
2016 Ranking: 4/81 in Sport Sciences | 1/76 in Orthopedics
Source: 2016 Journal Citation Reports® (Clarivate Analytics, 2017); Indexed in PubMed: MEDLINE

Editor-in-Chief
Bruce Reider, MD Chicago, Illinois, USA


eISSN: 15523365 | ISSN: 03635465 | Current volume: 45 | Current issue: 13 Frequency: 14 Times/YearTimes/Year

View the 2018 Journals Subscription Package for The American Journal of Sports Medicine and Sports Health.

An invaluable resource for the orthopaedic sports medicine community, The American Journal of Sports Medicine is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, first published in 1972. It is the official publication of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM)! The journal acts as an important forum for independent orthopaedic sports medicine research and education, allowing clinical practitioners the ability to make decisions based on sound scientific information.

This journal is a must-read for:

  • Orthopaedic Surgeons and Specialists
  • Sports Medicine Physicians
  • Physiatrists
  • Athletic Trainers
  • Team Physicians
  • And Physical Therapists

Topics covered include:

  • ACL – injury & reconstruction
  • Arthroscopic techniques
  • Basic science relevant to clinical sports medicine, including the subjects of anatomy, biomechanics, and cell biology
  • Children & adolescents
  • Degenerative Joint Disease
  • Epidemiology of sports injuries
  • Female athletes
  • Imaging studies
  • Surgical techniques for the knee, shoulder, elbow, and ankle
  • Specific injuries including shoulder, knee and meniscus subjects
  • Rehabilitation & training
  • Sport specific subjects such as soccer, baseball and football issues
  • Treatment techniques

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM)

As a world leader in sports medicine education, research, communication and fellowship, The AOSSM is a national organization of orthopaedic surgeons specializing in sports medicine, including national and international sports medicine leaders. The AOSSM works closely with many other sports medicine specialists and clinicians, including family physicians, emergency physicians, pediatricians, athletic trainers and physical therapists, to improve the identification, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of sports injuries.

Formed in 1972 primarily as a forum for education and research, the AOSSM has grown from its modest initial membership of fewer than 100 to close to 3,000.

Through research and advances in surgical and rehabilitation techniques, orthopaedic sports medicine specialists have been able to treat and rehabilitate athletes whose injuries were once career-ending and put them back in the game. Members must demonstrate continuing active research and educational activities in the field of sports medicine. Such activities may include service as a team physician at any level of competition, educating persons involved with the health of athletes, service to local, regional, national and international competitions, and the presentation of scientific research papers at sports medicine meetings.

The unifying interest of the membership is their concern with the effects of exercise and the monitoring of its impact on active individuals of all ages, abilities and levels of fitness.

Visit www.aossm.org for more information.


The American Journal of Sports Medicine, founded in 1972, is the official publication of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. It contains original articles addressed to orthopaedic surgeons specializing in sports medicine, and to team physicians, athletic trainers, and physical therapists focusing on the causes and effects of injury or disease resulting from or affected by athletic injury.

Editor-in-Chief
Bruce Reider, MD Chicago, Illinois, USA
Associate Editors: Current Concepts
Timothy Foster, MD Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Allen F. Anderson, MD Tennessee Orthopaedic Alliance, Nashville, TN, USA
Bert R. Mandelbaum, MD Santa Monica, California, USA
Associate Editors: Electronic Media and Randomized Trials
Brett D. Owens, MD Providence, Rhode Island, USA
Associate Editors: Biomechanics
Braden C. Fleming, PhD Providence, Rhode Island, USA
Associate Editors: Epidemiology and Statistics
James L. Carey, MD, MPH Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Associate Editors: Translational Biology
Scott A. Rodeo, MD New York, New York, USA
Editor Emeritus
Robert E. Leach, MD; 1991-2001 Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Founding Editor
Jack C. Hughston, MD; 1972-1990 Columbus, Georgia, USA
Board of Trustees
Annunziato Amendola, MD Durham, North Carolina, USA
Allen F. Anderson, MD Tennessee Orthopaedic Alliance, Nashville, TN, USA
Robert A. Arciero, MD Farmington, Connecticut, USA
Champ L. Baker, Jr., MD Columbus, Georgia, USA
Charles A. Bush-Joseph, MD Chicago, Illinois, USA
Michael G. Ciccotti, MD Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Diane L. Dahm, MD Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Bruce Reider, MD Chicago, Illinois, USA
Robert A. Stanton, MD, Chair Fairfield, Connecticut, USA
Editorial Board
John P. Albright, MD Iowa City, Iowa, USA
Louis C. Almekinders, MD Durham, North Carolina, USA
Annunziato Amendola, MD Durham, North Carolina, USA
Kyle Anderson, MD Southfield, Michigan, USA
Jack T. Andrish, MD Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Elizabeth A. Arendt, MD Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Steven P. Arnoczky, DVM East Lansing, Michigan, USA
Michael Askew, PhD Akron, Ohio, USA
Alfred Atanda, MD Wilmington, Delaware, USA
Olufemi R. Ayeni, MD, MSc, FRCSC Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Frederick M. Azar, MD Memphis, Tennessee, USA
James Baldwin, MD Portland, Oregon, USA
Phillipe Beaufils, MD Le Chesnay, France
Bruce D. Beynnon, PhD Burlington, Vermont, USA
Barry P. Boden, MD Rockville, Maryland, USA
Daniel V. Boguszewski, PhD Los Angeles, California, USA
Charles H. Brown, Jr., MD Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Charles A. Bush-Joseph, MD Chicago, Illinois, USA
Gianluca Camillieri, MD Rome, Italy
James E. Carpenter, MD Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Chih-Hwa Chen, MD Taipei, Taiwan
Shiyi Chen, MD, PhD Shanghai, China
Moises Cohen, MD Sao Paulo, Brazil
John E. Conway, MD Ft. Worth, Texas, USA
Louis E. DeFrate, PhD Durham, North Carolina, USA
Marlene DeMaio, MD Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Ron L. Diercks, MD Groningen, the Netherlands
Patrick J. Djian, MD Paris, France
Jason L. Dragoo, MD Redwood City, California, USA
Matej Drobnic, MD, PhD Ljubljana, Slovenia
Lars Engebretsen, MD, PhD Oslo, Norway
Paul Fadale, MD Providence, Rhode Island, USA
Lutul D. Farrow, MD Garfield Heights, Ohio, USA
Julian A. Feller, FRACS Professor, OrthoSport Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Donald C. Fithian, MD San Diego, California, USA
Cristian A. Fontbote, MD Santiago, Chile
Freddie H. Fu, MD Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
William E. Garrett Jr., MD, PhD Durham, North Carolina, USA
James G. Garrick, MD San Francisco, Calfornia, USA
Pablo E. Gelber, MD, PhD Barcelona, Spain
Mark D. Grabiner, PhD Chicago, Illinois, USA
Michael Elias Hantes, MD Larisa, Greece
Christopher D. Harner, MD Houston, Texas, USA
Vojtech Havlas, MD, PhD Prague, Czech Republic
Richard J. Hawkins, MD Greenville, South Carolina, USA
Stephen M. Howell, MD Sacramento, California, USA
Christophe Hulet, MD Caen, France
Mark R. Hutchinson, MD Chicago, Illinois, USA
Andreas B. Imhoff, MD Chairman, Department of Orthopaedic Sportsmedicine, Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Eivind Inderhaug, MD, MPH, PhD Boenes, Norway
Eiji Itoi, MD, PhD Sendai, Japan
Timo Jaakko Jarvela, MD, PhD Helsinki, Finland
David Paul Johnson, MD, FRCSC(Orth) Bristol, UK
Robert J. Johnson, MD Burlington, Vermont, USA
Mustafa Karahan, MD Istanbul, Turkey
Keith Kenter, MD Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA
Jin Goo Kim, MD, PhD Seoul, Korea
Seung-Ho Kim, MD, PhD Seoul, Korea
Donald T. Kirkendall, PhD Cary, North Carolina, USA
Dieter Kohn, MD Homberg / Saar, Germany
Robert F. LaPrade, MD, PhD Vail, Colorado, USA
Mario Victor Larrain, MD Buenos Aires, Argentina
Daniel Latt, MD, PhD Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Paulo Jose Llinas, MD Cali, Columbia
Michael Maloney, MD University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
David F. Martin, MD Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
John M. Marzo, MD Buffalo, New York, USA
David R. McAllister, MD Los Angeles, California, USA
Eric C. McCarty, MD Boulder, Colorado, USA
Ian D. McDermott, MBBS, MS, FRCS London, UK
Edward R. McDevitt, MD Arnold, Maryland, USA
Edward McFarland, MD Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Jacques Menetrey, MD Geneva, Switzerland
Antonio C. Miguel, MD Mexico City, Mexico
Bruce S. Miller, MD Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Mark D. Miller, MD Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Robert H. Miller, MD Memphis, Tennessee, USA
Peter J. Millett, MD Vail, Colorado, USA
Nicholas Mohtadi, MD, FRCS Calgary, Canada
Michael A. Oberlander, MD Walnut Creek, California, USA
John W. Orchard, MD, PhD, FACSP Kensington, Australia
Sam Oussedik, MBBS, FRCS(Tr&Orth) Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University College London Hospitals, London, UK
Lonnie E. Paulos, MD Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
Giancarlo Puddu, MD Rome, Italy
Per A. Renstrom, MD, PhD Stockholm, Sweden
Derek Rutherford, PT, PhD Halifax, Canada
Marc R. Safran, MD Stanford, California, USA
Hatem G. Said, MD, FRCSI Assiut, Egypt
Sven U. Scheffler, MD Berlin, Germany
K. Donald Shelbourne, MD Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
Margaret Smith, PhD St. Leonards, Australia
Gary S. Solomon, PhD Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Mark E. Steiner, MD Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Michael J. Stuart, MD Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Laura Timmerman, MD Walnut Creek, California, USA
Bruce C. Twaddle, MBChB, FRACS Auckland, New Zealand
Daniel C. Wascher, MD Professor, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
Thomas L. Wickiewicz, MD New York, New York, USA
Savio L-Y. Woo, PhD Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Kazunori Yasuda, MD, PhD Sapporo, Japan
Yi-Meng Yen, MD, PhD Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Electronic Media Editorial Board
Michael Angeline, MD Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, USA
Alfred Atanda, MD Wilmington, Delaware, USA
Knut Beitzel, MD Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Technische Universität München, München, Germany
Jonathan F. Dickens, MD Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Alan M.J. Getgood, MD, FRCS London, Ontario, Canada
Eivind Inderhaug, MD, MPH, PhD Boenes, Norway
Thomas J. Kremen, MD Los Angeles, California, USA
Aaron J. Krych, MD Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Xinning Li, MD Boston, Massachusetts, USA
David Wasserstein, MD, MSc Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Senior Editorial and Production Manager
Principal Reviewers
Geoffrey D. Abrams, MD Stanford, California, USA
Scott McDowell Adams, MD Ellicott City, Maryland
Gordon Alderink, PhD Grand Rapids, Michigan
David W. Altchek, MD New York, New York, USA
Timothy Amann, DO Blue Bell, Pennsylvania, USA
Maurice Balke, MD Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Cologne Merheim Medical Center, Witten/Herdecke University, Cologne, Germany
F. Alan Barber, MD, FACS Plano, Texas, USA
William B. Barr, PhD New York, New York, USA
Keith M. Baumgarten, MD Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA
Mike H. Baums, MD, PhD Dorsten, Germany
Paulo Santoro Belangero, MD Sao Paulo, Brazil
Tahsin Beyzadeoglu, MD Turkish Society of Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy and Knee Surgery (TUSYAD)
Jefferson C. Brand, MD Alexandria, Minnesota, USA
Robert H. Brophy, MD Chesterfield, Missouri, USA
Aydin Budeyri, MD Gaziantep, Turkey
Paul C. Chin, MD, PhD The Woodlands, Texas, USA
Etsuo Chosa, MD, PhD Miyazaki, Japan
Robb Colbrunn, PhD Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Brian J. Cole, MD, MBA Chicago, Illinois, USA
Charles Cox, MD, MPH Nashville, Tennessee
Derik L. Davis, MD Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Joseph DeAngelis, MD Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Dinesh Dhanaraj, MD, MSPH Plainsboro, New Jersey, USA
Arsh S. Dhanota, MD San Diego, California, USA
Aman Dhawan, MD Asociate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
Jeffrey R. Dugas, MD Birmingham, Alabama, USA
Hussein A. Elkousy, MD Houston, Texas
Pieter J. Erasmus, MBChB, MMed(Ortho) Stellenbosch, South Africa
Brandon J. Erickson, MD Chicago, Illinois, USA
Douglas A. Evans, MD Director of Surgical Stimulation Education, Associate Professor, Section of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA
Jack Farr, MD Indiana Orthopaedic Hospital, Greenwood, IN, USA
Scott Faucett, MD, MS Washington, D.C., USA
Giuseppe Filardo, MD, PhD Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, University of Bologna, Italy; Ospedale Civico of Lugano, Switzerland
Daniel N. Fish, MD Ridgefield, Connecticut, USA
Donald Edward Fowler, MD Austell, Georgia
Michael Thomas Freehill, MD Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Robert August Gallo, MD Hershey, Pennsylvania
Trevor Gaskill, MD Manhattan, Kansas, USA
Christopher J. Gatti, MSE, PhD Chelmsford, Massachusetts, USA
C. David Geier Jr, MD Sports Medicine Specialists of Charleston, Mount Pleasant, SC, USA
Jonathan Gelber, MD, MS Beachwood, Ohio, USA
James Warner Genuario, MD Lone Tree, Colorado, USA
Michael S. George, MD Houston, Texas
Peter G. Gerbino II, MD Monterey, California, USA
Thomas J. Gill III, MD Dedham, Massachusetts
Scott D. Gillogly, MD Doha, Qatar
Andreas H. Gomoll, MD Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
John A. Grant, MD, PhD Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Daniel W. Green, MD New York, New York, USA
Yong-Chan Ha, MD Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Joshua Hamann, MD Columbia, Missouri, USA
Joshua David Harris, MD Houston, Texas
Camilo P. Helito, MD Sao Paulo, Brazil
Timothy E. Hewett, PhD Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Reiji Higashiyama, MD, PhD Sagamihara, Japan
Sherwin S.W. Ho, MD Professor and Director of Sports Medicine Fellowship, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Joseph Horton, MD Harlingen, Texas
Omer A. Ilahi, MD Houston, Texas
Scott Geoffrey Kaar, MD St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Jay Vinodrai Kalawadia, MD North Wales, Pennsylvania, USA
Richard W. Kang, MD Chicago, Illinois, USA
John D. Kelly, MD Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Andrew Douglas Kersten, MD Asheville, North Carolina, USA
Michael Khair, MD Dallas, Texas
Miguel A. Khoury, MD Director, Cleveland Sports Medicine, Hudson, Argentina
Ata Kiapour, PhD Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Eiji Kondo, MD Sapporo, Japan
Damian C. Kosempa, MD Greenfield, Wisconsin
David Kovacevic, MD New Haven, Conencticut, USA
Lance E. LeClere, LCDR MC USN Gambrills, Maryland
Mark Jason Lemos, MD Burlington, Massachusetts, USA
James P. Leonard, MD Orland Park, Illinois, USA
Steven D. Levin, MD Stokie, Illinois, USA
Tony C. Lin, MD  
Thomas N. Lindenfeld, MD Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Olaf Lorbach, MD Attending Physician, Sporthopaedicum Berlin, Berlin, Germany
C. Benjamin Ma, MD San Fransisco, California, USA
Robert A. Magnussen, MD, MPH Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
Eric Makhni, MD, MBA Chicago, Illinois, USA
Krishna Mallik, MD Scottsdale, Arizona, USA
Matthew S. Marcus, MD Chicago, Illinois, USA
James W. Matheson, PT, DPT, MS River Falls, Wisconsin, USA
Timothy R. McAdams, MD Los Altos Hills, California, USA
Giuseppe Milano, MD Rome, Italy
Thomas K. Miller, MD Roanoke, Virginia, USA
Allan K. Mishra, MD Menlo Park, California, USA
Vasilios Moutzouros, MD Northville, Michigan, USA
Volker Musahl, MD Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Carl W. Nissen, MD Farmington, Connecticut
James Lee Pace, MD Los Angeles, California, USA
Jonathan D. Packer, MD Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Cecilia Pascual Garrido, MD Boulder, Colorado, USA
Thilo Patzer, MD Dusseldorf, Germany
Albert W. Pearsall IV, MD Mobile, Alabama, USA
Ryan Thomas Pitts, MD St. Louis, Missouri, USA
John Polousky, MD Plano, Texas, USA
Matthew Posner, MD West Point, New York, USA
Chadwick C. Prodromos, MD Glenview, Illinois
Benedikt L. Proffen, MD Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Stephen Rabuck, MD Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Bart Rask, MD Hillsboro, Oregon
Bill Ribbans, MD Northampton, UK
Jonathan C. Riboh, MD Durham, North Carolina
Neetu Rishiraj, PhD Vancouver, Canada
Robert C. Schenck Jr, MD Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
Mark S. Schickendantz, MD Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Seth L. Sherman, MD Columbia, Missouri, USA
Jason J. Shin, MD Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Jason E. Simon, MD Nashua, New Hampshire
Domenick J. Sisto, MD Sherman Oaks, California, USA
Mark Slabaugh, MD Monument, Colorado, USA
David H. Sohn, MD Toledo, Ohio, USA
Alvin Weii Su, MD, PhD Richmond Heights, Missouri, USA
Misty Suri, MD New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
Timothy N. Taft, MD University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Thomas Tischer, MD Rostock, Germany
Georgios Nikolaos Tzoanos, MD Herakion, Greece
Soshi Uchida, MD, PhD Kitakyushu, Japan
Carola F. Van Eck, MD, PhD Los Angeles, California, USA
Piero Volpi, MD Rozzano, Italy
William Robert Walsh, PhD Randwick, Australia
Brian R. Waterman, MD El Paso, Texas
Jonathan Watson, MD Woodridge, Illinois, USA
Stephen C. Weber, MD Sacramento, California, USA
Feng Wei, PhD East Lansing, Michigan
Bryan J. Whitfield, MD Decatur, Georgia
Ivan Ho-Bun Wong, MD, FRCS(C) Halifax, Canada
Thomas Y. Wu Ventura, California, USA
Douglas Wyland, MD Spartanburg, South Carolina, USA
Justin Shu Yang, MD Los Angeles, California, USA
Yi-Meng Yen, MD, PhD Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Stefano Zaffagnini, MD Bologna, Italy
Alan Zhang, MD San Fransisco, California, USA
  • CABI: Abstracts on Hygiene and Communicable Diseases
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  • Clarivate Analytics: Current Contents - Clinical Medicine
  • Clarivate Analytics: Science Citation Index
  • EMBASE
  • Focus On: Sports Science & Medicine
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  • Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Abstracts
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  • World Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology Abstracts (in CAB Abstracts Database)
  • The editor of AJSM, Bruce Reider, can be contacted via email at breider@ajsm.org.

    The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM) is the official publication of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.

    Submit manuscripts online at http://ajsm-submit.highwire.org.

    Download the AJSM Submission Guidelines or see below.

    Download the AJSM Ethics Policies.

    1. Manuscript Submission Guidelines
    2. Submissions
    3. Manuscript Formats
    4. Manuscript Preparation
      4.1 Abstract
      4.2 Study Designs
      4.3 Text
      4.4 Acknowledgment
      4.5 References
      4.6 Figures and Tables
      4.7 Videos
    5. Accepted Manuscripts
    6. NIH-Supported Studies
    7. Important Notice on Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement

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    1. Manuscript Submission Guidelines

    Manuscripts must not be under simultaneous consideration by any other publication, before or during the peer-review process. Papers presented at AOSSM meetings must be submitted to the Journal for first rights of refusal. Articles published in AJSM may not be published elsewhere without written permission from the publisher.

    Manuscripts should cite any other work by one or more of the co-authors that is relevant to the subject matter of the current submission or that used any of the same subjects, animals, or specimens being reported in the current submission. This includes manuscripts that are currently under preparation, are being considered by journals, are accepted for publication, or already published. In any of these cases, the relationship to the current submission should be made clear.

    All review articles (such as systematic review, meta-analysis) submitted will be considered for the Current Concepts section. Authors with ideas for current concepts should contact the associate editor, Timothy Foster, MD, to find out if AJSM has recently published a review article on that topic or if there is a similar submission in progress. Contact Dr. Foster at currentconcepts@ajsm.org to inquire about your idea or submit already completed papers directly to the journal at http://ajsm-submit.highwire.org.

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    2. Submissions

    Authors should register on our online submission site at http://ajsm-submit.highwire.org to submit manuscripts.

    When manuscripts have been received by the editorial office, the corresponding author will be sent an acknowledgment giving an assigned manuscript number, which should be used with all subsequent correspondence for anything related to that particular manuscript.

    The following items are required on submission:

    1. Blinded manuscript including the abstract and any tables and figures where they occur in the text. No identifying information should appear in the uploaded manuscript. Please remove author names, initials, and institutions. State or country names may be used, but do not include specific locations such as cities or regions.
    2. Journal Contributor Publishing Agreement and AJSM Author Disclosure Statement. These forms are available for download from the author area of the submission site. The corresponding author must complete the forms and return them to AJSM by email or upload them online as a PDF or Word file using the ‘‘upload legal documents’’ option. As an alternative to the AJSM disclosure form, authors may submit the ICMJE disclosure form along with the AJSM Supplemental Form available on our website.
    3. A copy of the IRB or other agency approval (or waiver) if animal subjects or human subjects or tissues or health information were used. Please see further instructions under "Text." This information should be uploaded with the disclosure and publishing forms and not as a supplemental file.
    4. The original study protocol for all registered clinical trials must be included and can be uploaded as a supplemental file. This information should be blinded for peer review (remove author name and location as well as trial registration number). Use of a CONSORT flow diagram is required to illustrate the grouping and flow of patients for all randomized clinical trials. The CONSORT checklist must also be completed and uploaded as a supplemental file.

    Cover letter, acknowledgments, and suggested reviewers are optional. If a paper has more than 5 authors, a cover letter detailing the contributions of all authors should be included in the appropriate box on the submission page. Only those involved in writing the paper should be included in the author line. Others should be listed as a footnote or acknowledgment. While there is no limit on the number of authors, no more than 12 will be listed on the masthead of the published article; additional authors will be listed at the end of the article.

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    3. Manuscript Formats

    Manuscript pages should be double-spaced with consecutive page numbers and continuous line numbers. The abstract should be included with the manuscript as well as being entered in the Metadata section (except for case reports, which do not require abstracts). Manuscripts should be 6000 words or fewer (including abstract and references). There are also limitations on figures, tables, and references; see guidelines below. The system handles most common word processing formats; however, Word and PDF are preferred.

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    4. Manuscript Preparation

    4.1 Abstract

    Abstracts should summarize the contents of the article in 350 words or less. The abstract should be structured in the following format:

    Background: In one or two sentences, summarize the scientific body of knowledge surrounding your study and how this led to your investigation.

    Hypothesis/Purpose: State the theory(ies) that you are attempting to prove or disprove by your study or the purpose if no hypothesis exists.

    Study Design: Identify the overall design of your study. See list below.

    Methods: Succinctly summarize the overall methods you used in your investigation. Include the study population, type of intervention, method of data collection, and length of the study.

    Results: Report the most important results of your study. Only include positive results that are statistically significant, or important negative results that are supported by adequate power. Report actual data, not just P values.

    Conclusion: State the answer to your original question or hypothesis. Summarize the most important conclusions that can be directly drawn from your study.

    Clinical Relevance: If yours was a laboratory study, describe its relevance to clinical sports medicine.

    Key Terms: Include at least 4 key terms for indexing. When submitting an article, you will be asked to choose from a list of terms that are used for assigning reviewers. These terms can be used in the manuscript as well. The list can be found at http://ajsm-submit.highwire.org/submission/editexpertise.

    What is known about the subject: Please state what is currently known about this subject to place your study in perspective for the reviewers.

    What this study adds to existing knowledge: Please state what this study adds to the existing knowledge.

    The last two items are for reviewers only and are not included in the word count, but should appear at the end of the abstract in the uploaded text.

    4.2 Study Designs

    Meta-analysis: A systematic overview of studies that pools results of two or more studies to obtain an overall answer to a question or interest. Summarizes quantitatively the evidence regarding a treatment, procedure, or association.

    Systematic Review: An article that examines published material on a clearly described subject in a systematic way. There must be a description of how the evidence on this topic was tracked down, from what sources and with what inclusion and exclusion criteria.

    Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial: A group of patients is randomized into an experimental group and a control group. These groups are followed up for the variables / outcomes of interest. NOTE: All clinical trials started after January 1, 2016 must be registered at ClinicalTrials.gov or a similar database to be considered for publication.

    Crossover Study Design: The administration of two or more experimental therapies one after the other in a specified or random order to the same group of patients.

    Cohort Study: Involves identification of two groups (cohorts) of patients, one which did receive the exposure of interest, and one which did not, and following these cohorts forward for the outcome of interest.

    Case-Control Study: A study that involves identifying patients who have the outcome of interest (cases) and patients without the same outcome (controls), and looking back to see if they had the exposure of interest.

    Cross-Sectional Study: The observation of a defined population at a single point in time or time interval. Exposure and outcome are determined simultaneously.

    Case Series: Describes characteristics of a group of patients with a particular disease or who have undergone a particular procedure. Design may be prospective or retrospective. No control group is used in the study, although the discussion may compare the results to other published outcomes.

    Case Report: Similar to the case series, except that only one or a small group of cases is reported.

    Descriptive Epidemiology Study: Observational study describing the injuries occurring in a particular sport.

    Controlled Laboratory Study: An in vitro or in vivo investigation in which 1 group receiving an experimental treatment is compared to 1 or more groups receiving no treatment or an alternate treatment.

    Descriptive Laboratory Study: An in vivo or in vitro study that describes characteristics such as anatomy, physiology, or kinesiology of a broad range of subjects or a specific group of interest. Authors should choose the design that best fits the study.

    The Editor will make the final determination of the study design and level of evidence based on the Center for Evidence Based Medicine guidelines.

    4.3 Text

    In general, follow the standard IMRAD (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion) format for writing scientific articles. The author is responsible for all statements made in the work, including copyeditor changes, which the author will have an opportunity to verify. Authors with limited fluency in English should have the paper reviewed or edited by a native English speaker to ensure clear presentation of the work.

    Papers including human or animal subjects must include a statement of approval by appropriate agencies in the text, and a copy of the approval letter must be uploaded with the submission. If approval was not required, authors must upload a waiver statement from the appropriate agency. For human cadaveric specimens, please provide source (eg, donation to university anatomy program) and state if permission was obtained for use. Additionally, all studies involving animals must conform to ARRIVE guidelines. If available, please include the source of animal joint or tissue specimens. For case reports, include a letter from the patient granting permission for his/her information to be included in the publication.

    Reports on surgery, except in rare instances, require a minimum follow-up of 2 years.

    Use generic names of drugs or devices. If a particular brand was used in a study, insert the brand name along with the name and location of the manufacturer in parentheses after the generic name when the drug or device is first mentioned in the text.

    Use metric units in measurements (centimeter vs inch, kilogram vs pound).

    Abbreviations should be used sparingly. When abbreviations are used, give the full term followed by the abbreviation in parentheses the first time it is mentioned in the text, such as femur-ACL-tibia complex (FATC).

    Use of a CONSORT flow diagram is required to illustrate the grouping and flow of patients in all randomized controlled trials and is recommended for all other types of clinical studies.

    Statistical methods should be described in detail. Actual P values should be used unless less than .001. Reporting of 95% confidence intervals is encouraged.

    4.4 Acknowledgment

    Type the acknowledgments in the box provided on the submission page; do not include it in the manuscript. This information will be added to the accepted manuscript at the time of publication. Give credit to technical assistants and professional colleagues who contributed to the quality of the paper but are not listed as authors. Please briefly describe the contributions made by persons being acknowledged. Note: anyone who has contributed to the preparation of the submitted text must be included on the author disclosure form, under Statement of Authorship, and his or her disclosures included there.

    4.5 References

    References should be double-spaced in alphabetical order and numbered according to alphabetical listing. Except for review articles, references should be limited to 60. If references are not in alphabetical order the uploaded file will be REJECTED and will have to be resubmitted with the references in the correct form. When author entries are the same, alphabetize by the first word of the title. In general, use the Index Medicus form for abbreviating journal titles and the AMA Manual of Style (10th ed) for format. Note: References must be retrievable. Do not include in the reference list meeting presentations that have not been published. Data such as presentations and articles that have been submitted for publication but have not been accepted must be put in the text as unpublished data immediately after mention of the information (for example, ‘‘Smith and Jones (unpublished data, 2000) noted ... ’’). Personal communications and other references to unpublished data are discouraged. For review purposes, unpublished references that are closely related to the submitted paper or are important for understanding it should be uploaded as supplemental files.

    References will be linked to Medline citations for the reviewers. Authors can include articles that are in Epublish mode. To ensure that these Epub references are linked correctly, please provide the PMID number from Medline at the end of the reference. For example: Emery CA, Meeuwisse WH. Injury rates and mechanisms of injury in minor hockey. Am J Sports Med. 2006 Jul 21; [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 16861577

    4.6 Figures and Tables

    Figures and tables should appear in the body of the paper near the place where they are mentioned. High-resolution images should also be uploaded separately as Figure files. The figures and tables should be cited in numeric order in the text and should not exceed 3 journal pages. One journal page equals 1 large table or figure, 2 medium-sized tables or figures, or 4 small tables or figures. Medium-sized tables and figures will be a page width and half the length of the page; small tables and figures are 1-column width and take up half the length of the page or less.

    Any material that is submitted with an article that has been reproduced from another source (that is, has been copyrighted previously) must conform to the current copyright regulations. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain written permission for reproduction of copyrighted material and provide the editorial office with that documentation before the material will be reproduced in the Journal.

    All image files for figures should be labeled with the Figure number (label each part if figures include multiple parts, eg, 2A, 2B). The figure legend should be placed below each figure and should include descriptions of each figure part and identify the meaning of any symbols or arrows. Terms used for labels and in the legend must be consistent with those in the text. A CONSORT flow diagram should be included for all randomized clinical trials to illustrate the grouping and flow of patients.

    Color will be used in the Journal where needed (eg, histology slides or surgical photographs). All other figures, such as bar graphs and charts, should be submitted in black and white.

    Figures for papers accepted for publication must meet the image resolution requirements of the publisher, SAGE Publications. Files for line-based drawings (no grayscale) should ideally be submitted in the format they were originally created; if submitting scanned versions, files should be 1200 dots per inch (dpi). Color photos should be submitted at 600 dpi and black-and-white photos at 300 dpi.

    Charts and graphs can be submitted in the original form created (eg, Word, Excel, or PowerPoint). Photographs or scanned drawings embedded in Word or PowerPoint are not acceptable for publication.

    All photographs of patients that disclose their identity must be accompanied by a signed photographic release granting permission for their likeness to be reproduced in the article. If this is not provided, the patient’s eyes must be occluded to prevent recognition.

    For tables, the system accepts most common word processing formats. Tables should have a title that describes the content and purpose of the table. Tables should enhance, not duplicate, information in the text.

    4.7 Videos

    Use of supplementary video is encouraged. Videos may be submitted with a manuscript and, if approved by the editor, will be posted online with the article when published. Video submission is strongly encouraged for manuscripts reporting surgical, examination, or exercise techniques or injury mechanisms. For more information about the format requirements for videos, please review the Video Format Guide. For detailed information pertaining to copyright and permissions requirements, view the Video Permission and Fair Use Quick Guide. For videos with identifiable subjects, subjects will need to sign the Audio-Visual Likeness Release form. It is the author’s responsibility to submit signed release forms, if necessary, for each video.

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    5. Accepted Manuscripts

    Once an article is accepted and typeset, authors will be required to carefully read and correct their manuscript proofs that have been copyedited by the publisher. Any extensive changes made by authors on the proofs will be charged to authors at the rate of $2 a line. Authors are responsible for ordering reprints of their articles. Completed articles will be published on our website before print publication.

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    6. NIH-Supported Studies

    Authors of studies funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health can deposit a copy of their accepted final peer-reviewed manuscript and associated figure/table files (pre-typeset versions) to the NIH database after a 12-month embargo period from the time their article is published in AJSM.

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    7. Important Notice on Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement

    AJSM and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of articles published in the journal. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal. Submitted articles may be checked using duplication-checking software. Where an article is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where authorship of the article is contested, or where data or other information found to be incorrect

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