The American Journal of Sports Medicine
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The American Journal of Sports Medicine

2016 Impact Factor: 5.673
2016 Ranking: 4/81 in Sport Sciences | 1/76 in Orthopedics
Source: 2016 Journal Citation Reports® (Clarivate Analytics, 2017); Indexed in PubMed: MEDLINE

EDITOR
Bruce Reider, MD Chicago, Illinois


eISSN: 15523365 | ISSN: 03635465 | Current volume: 45 | Current issue: 7 Frequency: 14 Times/YearTimes/Year

View the 2016 Journals Subscription Package for The American Journal of Sports Medicine and Sports Health.

An invaluable resource for the orthopaedic sports medicine community, The American Journal of Sports Medicine is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, first published in 1972. It is the official publication of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM)! The journal acts as an important forum for independent orthopaedic sports medicine research and education, allowing clinical practitioners the ability to make decisions based on sound scientific information.

This journal is a must-read for:

  • Orthopaedic Surgeons and Specialists
  • Sports Medicine Physicians
  • Physiatrists
  • Athletic Trainers
  • Team Physicians
  • And Physical Therapists

Topics covered include:

  • ACL – injury & reconstruction
  • Arthroscopic techniques
  • Basic science relevant to clinical sports medicine, including the subjects of anatomy, biomechanics, and cell biology
  • Children & adolescents
  • Degenerative Joint Disease
  • Epidemiology of sports injuries
  • Female athletes
  • Imaging studies
  • Surgical techniques for the knee, shoulder, elbow, and ankle
  • Specific injuries including shoulder, knee and meniscus subjects
  • Rehabilitation & training
  • Sport specific subjects such as soccer, baseball and football issues
  • Treatment techniques

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM)

As a world leader in sports medicine education, research, communication and fellowship, The AOSSM is a national organization of orthopaedic surgeons specializing in sports medicine, including national and international sports medicine leaders. The AOSSM works closely with many other sports medicine specialists and clinicians, including family physicians, emergency physicians, pediatricians, athletic trainers and physical therapists, to improve the identification, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of sports injuries.

Formed in 1972 primarily as a forum for education and research, the AOSSM has grown from its modest initial membership of fewer than 100 to close to 3,000.

Through research and advances in surgical and rehabilitation techniques, orthopaedic sports medicine specialists have been able to treat and rehabilitate athletes whose injuries were once career-ending and put them back in the game. Members must demonstrate continuing active research and educational activities in the field of sports medicine. Such activities may include service as a team physician at any level of competition, educating persons involved with the health of athletes, service to local, regional, national and international competitions, and the presentation of scientific research papers at sports medicine meetings.

The unifying interest of the membership is their concern with the effects of exercise and the monitoring of its impact on active individuals of all ages, abilities and levels of fitness.

Visit www.aossm.org for more information.


The American Journal of Sports Medicine, founded in 1972, is the official publication of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. It contains original articles addressed to orthopaedic surgeons specializing in sports medicine, and to team physicians, athletic trainers, and physical therapists focusing on the causes and effects of injury or disease resulting from or affected by athletic injury.

Editor-in-Chief
Bruce Reider, MD Chicago, Illinois
Associate Editors: Current Concepts
Timothy Foster, MD Boston, Massachusetts
Allen F. Anderson, MD Tennessee Orthopaedic Alliance, Nashville, TN, USA
Bert R. Mandelbaum, MD Santa Monica, California
Associate Editors: Electronic Media and Randomized Trials
Brett D. Owens, MD Providence, Rhode Island
Associate Editors: Biomechanics
Braden C. Fleming, PhD Providence, Rhode Island
Associate Editors: Epidemiology and Statistics
James L. Carey, MD, MPH Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Associate Editors: Translational Biology
Scott A. Rodeo, MD New York, New York
Editor Emeritus
Robert E. Leach, MD; 1991-2001 Boston, Massachusetts
Founding Editor
Board of Trustees
Robert A. Stanton, MD, Chair Fairfield, Connecticut
Annunziato Amendola, MD Durham, North Carolina
Allen F. Anderson, MD Tennessee Orthopaedic Alliance, Nashville, TN, USA
Robert A. Arciero, MD Farmington, Connecticut
Bernard R. Bach, MD Chicago, Illinois
Champ L. Baker, Jr., MD Columbus, Georgia
Diane L. Dahm, MD Rochester, Minnesota
Bruce Reider, MD Chicago, Illinois
Dean C. Taylor, MD Durham, North Carolina
Editorial Board
John P. Albright, MD Iowa City, Iowa
Louis C. Almekinders, MD Durham, North Carolina
Annunziato Amendola, MD Durham, North Carolina
Kyle Anderson, MD Southfield, Michigan
Jack T. Andrish, MD Cleveland, Ohio
Elizabeth A. Arendt, MD Minneapolis, Minnesota
Steven P. Arnoczky, DVM East Lansing, Michigan
Michael Askew, PhD Akron, Ohio
Alfred Atanda, MD Wilmington, Delaware
Olufemi R. Ayeni, MD, MSc, FRCSC Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Frederick M. Azar, MD Memphis, Tennessee
James Baldwin, MD Portland, Oregon
Phillipe Beaufils, MD Le Chesnay, France
Bruce D. Beynnon, PhD Burlington, Vermont
Barry P. Boden, MD Rockville, Maryland
Daniel V. Boguszewski, PhD Los Angeles, California
Charles H. Brown, Jr., MD Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Charles A. Bush-Joseph, MD Chicago, Illinois
Gianluca Camillieri, MD Rome, Italy
James E. Carpenter, MD Ann Arbor, Michigan
Chih-Hwa Chen, MD Taipei, Taiwan
Shiyi Chen, MD, PhD Shanghai, China
Moises Cohen, MD Sao Paulo, Brazil
John E. Conway, MD Ft. Worth, Texas
Louis E. DeFrate, PhD Durham, North Carolina
Marlene DeMaio, MD Portsmouth, Virginia
Ron L. Diercks, MD Groningen, the Netherlands
Patrick J. Djian, MD Paris, France
Jason L. Dragoo, MD Redwood City, California
Matej Drobnic, MD, PhD Ljubljana, Slovenia
Lars Engebretsen, MD, PhD Oslo, Norway
Paul Fadale, MD Providence, Rhode Island
Lutul D. Farrow, MD Garfield Heights, Ohio
Julian A. Feller, FRACS Professor, OrthoSport Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Donald C. Fithian, MD El Cajon, California
Cristian A. Fontbote, MD Santiago, Chile
Freddie H. Fu, MD Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
William E. Garrett Jr., MD, PhD Durham, North Carolina
James G. Garrick, MD San Francisco, Calfornia
Pablo E. Gelber, MD, PhD Barcelona, Spain
Mark D. Grabiner, PhD Chicago, Illinois
Michael Elias Hantes, MD Larisa, Greece
Christopher D. Harner, MD Houston, Texas
Vojtech Havlas, MD, PhD Prague, Czech Republic
Richard J. Hawkins, MD Greenville, South Carolina
Stephen M. Howell, MD Sacramento, California
Christophe Hulet, MD Caen, France
Mark R. Hutchinson, MD Chicago, Illinois
Andreas B. Imhoff, MD Chairman, Department of Orthopaedic Sportsmedicine, Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Eiji Itoi, MD, PhD Sendai, Japan
Timo Jaakko Jarvela, MD, PhD Tampere, Finland
David Paul Johnson, MD, FRCSC(Orth) Bristol, United Kingdom
Robert J. Johnson, MD Burlington, Vermont
Mustafa Karahan, MD Istanbul, Turkey
Keith Kenter, MD Cincinnati, Ohio
Jin Goo Kim, MD, PhD Seoul, Korea
Seung-Ho Kim, MD, PhD Seoul, Korea
Donald T. Kirkendall, PhD Cary, North Carolina
Dieter Kohn, MD Homberg / Saar, Germany
Robert F. LaPrade, MD, PhD Vail, Colorado
Mario Victor Larrain, MD Buenos Aires, Argentina
Daniel Latt, MD, PhD Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Paulo Jose Llinas, MD Cali, Columbia
Michael Maloney, MD University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
David F. Martin, MD Winston-Salem, North Carolina
John M. Marzo, MD Buffalo, New York
David R. McAllister, MD Los Angeles, California
Eric C. McCarty, MD Boulder, Colorado
Ian D. McDermott, MBBS, MS, FRCS London, United Kingdom
Edward R. McDevitt, MD Arnold, Maryland
Edward McFarland, MD Baltimore, Maryland
Jacques Menetrey, MD Geneva, Switzerland
Antonio C. Miguel, MD Mexico City, Mexico
Bruce S. Miller, MD Ann Arbor, Michigan
Mark D. Miller, MD Charlottesville, Virginia
Robert H. Miller, MD Memphis, Tennessee
Peter J. Millett, MD Vail, Colorado
Nicholas Mohtadi, MD, FRCS Calgary, Canada
Michael A. Oberlander, MD Alamo, California
John W. Orchard, MD, PhD, FACSP Kensington, Australia
Sam Oussedik, MBBS, FRCS(Tr&Orth) Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University College London Hospitals, London, UK
Lonnie E. Paulos, MD Salt Lake City, Utah
Giancarlo Puddu, MD Rome, Italy
Per A. Renstrom, MD, PhD Stockholm, Sweden
Derek Rutherford, PT, PhD Halifax, Canada
Marc R. Safran, MD Stanford, California
Hatem G. Said, MD, FRCSI Assiut, Egypt
Sven U. Scheffler, MD Berlin, Germany
K. Donald Shelbourne, MD Indianapolis, Indiana
Margaret Smith, PhD St. Leonards, Australia
Gary S. Solomon, PhD Nashville, Tennessee
Mark E. Steiner, MD Boston, Massachusetts
Michael J. Stuart, MD Rochester, Minnesota
Laura Timmerman, MD Walnut Creek, California
Steve Tippett, PhD, PT, SCS, ATC Peoria, Illinois
Bruce C. Twaddle, MBChB, FRACS Auckland, New Zealand
Daniel C. Wascher, MD Professor, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
Thomas L. Wickiewicz, MD New York, New York
Savio L-Y. Woo, PhD Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Kazunori Yasuda, MD, PhD Sapporo, Japan
Yi-Meng Yen, MD, PhD Boston, Massachusetts
Electronic Media Editorial Board
Michael Angeline, MD Lake Geneva, Wisconsin
Alfred Atanda, MD Wilmington, Delaware
Jonathan F. Dickens, MD Bethesda, Maryland
Alan M.J. Getgood, MD, FRCS London, Ontario, Canada
Thomas J. Kremen, MD Los Angeles, California
Aaron J. Krych, MD Rochester, Minnesota
Xinning Li, MD Boston, Massachusetts
David Wasserstein, MD, MSc Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Senior Editorial and Production Manager
Principal Reviewers
Geoffrey D. Abrams, MD Stanford, California
Scott McDowell Adams, MD Ellicott City, Maryland
Gordon Alderink, PhD Grand Rapids, Michigan
David W. Altchek, MD New York, New York
Timothy Amann, DO Blue Bell, Pennsylvania
Maurice Balke, MD Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Cologne Merheim Medical Center, Witten/Herdecke University, Cologne, Germany
F. Alan Barber, MD Plano, Texas
William B. Barr New York, New York
Keith M. Baumgarten, MD Sioux Falls, South Dakota
Mike H. Baums, MD, PhD Dorsten, Germany
Paulo Santoro Belangero, MD Sao Paulo, Brazil
Tahsin Beyzadeoglu, MD Turkish Society of Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy and Knee Surgery (TUSYAD)
Jefferson C. Brand, MD Alexandria, Minnesota
Robert H. Brophy, MD Chesterfield, Missouri
Aydin Budeyri, MD Gaziantep, Turkey
Paul C. Chin, MD, PhD The Woodlands, Texas
Etsuo Chosa, MD, PhD Miyazaki, Japan
Robb Colbrunn, PhD Cleveland, Ohio
Brian J. Cole, MD, MBA Chicago, Illinois
Charles Cox, MD Nashville, Tennessee
Derik L. Davis, MD Baltimore, Maryland
Joseph DeAngelis, MD Boston, Massachusetts
Dinesh Dhanaraj, MD, MSPH Plainsboro, New Jersey
Arsh S. Dhanota, MD San Diego, California
Aman Dhawan, MD Asociate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
Jeffrey R. Dugas, MD Birmingham, Alabama
Hussein A. Elkousy, MD Houston, Texas
Pieter J. Erasmus, MBChB, MMed(Ortho) Stellenbosch, South Africa
Brandon J. Erickson, MD Chicago, Illinois
Douglas A. Evans, MD Director of Surgical Stimulation Education, Associate Professor, Section of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA
Jack Farr, MD Greenwood, Indiana
Scott Faucett, MD, MS Washington, D.C.
Giuseppe Filardo, MD, PhD Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, University of Bologna, Italy; Ospedale Civico of Lugano, Switzerland
Daniel N. Fish, MD Ridgefield, Connecticut
Donald Edward Fowler, MD Austell, Georgia
Michael Thomas Freehill, MD Ann Arbor, Michigan
Robert August Gallo, MD Hershey, Pennsylvania
Trevor Gaskill, MD Manhattan, Kansas
Christopher J. Gatti, MSE, PhD Chelmsford, Massachusetts
C. David Geier Jr, MD Sports Medicine Specialists of Charleston, Mount Pleasant, SC, USA
Jonathan Gelber, MD, MS Beachwood, Ohio
James Warner Genuario, MD Lone Tree, Colorado
Michael S. George, MD Houston, Texas
Peter G. Gerbino II, MD Monterey, California
Thomas J. Gill III, MD Dedham, Massachusetts
Scott D. Gillogly, MD Doha, Qatar
Andreas H. Gomoll, MD Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
John A. Grant, MD, PhD Ann Arbor, Michigan
Daniel W. Green, MD New York, New York
Yong-Chan Ha, MD Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Joshua Hamann, MD Columbia, Missouri
Joshua David Harris, MD Houston, Texas
Camilo P. Helito, MD Sao Paulo, Brazil
Timothy E. Hewett, PhD Rochester, Minnesota
Reiji Higashiyama, MD, PhD Sagamihara, Japan
Sherwin S.W. Ho, MD Professor and Director of Sports Medicine Fellowship, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Joseph Horton, MD Harlingen, Texas
Omer A. Ilahi, MD Houston, Texas
Scott Geoffrey Kaar, MD St. Louis, Missouri
Jay Vinodrai Kalawadia, MD North Wales, Pennsylvania
Richard W. Kang, MD Chicago, Illinois
John D. Kelly, MD Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Andrew Douglas Kersten, MD Asheville, North Carolina
Michael Khair, MD Dallas, Texas
Miguel A. Khoury, MD Director, Cleveland Sports Medicine, Hudson, Argentina
Ata Kiapour, PhD Boston, Massachusetts
Eiji Kondo, MD Sapporo, Japan
Damian C. Kosempa, MD Greenfield, Wisconsin
David Kovacevic, MD New Haven, Conencticut
Lance E. LeClere, LCDR MC USN Gambrills, Maryland
Mark Jason Lemos, MD Burlington, Massachusetts
James P. Leonard, MD Orland Park, Illinois
Steven D. Levin, MD Stokie, Illinois
Tony C. Lin, MD  
Thomas N. Lindenfeld, MD Cincinnati, Ohio
Olaf Lorbach, MD Attending Physician, Sporthopaedicum Berlin, Berlin, Germany
C. Benjamin Ma, MD San Fransisco, California
Robert A. Magnussen, MD, MPH Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
Eric Makhni, MD, MBA Chicago, Illinois
Krishna Mallik, MD Scottsdale, Arizona
Matthew S. Marcus, MD Chicago, Illinois
James W. Matheson, PT, DPT, MS River Falls, Wisconsin
Timothy R. McAdams, MD Los Altos Hills, California
Giuseppe Milano, MD Rome, Italy
Thomas K. Miller, MD Roanoke, Virginia
Allan K. Mishra, MD Menlo Park, California
Vasilios Moutzouros, MD Northville, Michigan
Volker Musahl, MD Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Carl W. Nissen, MD Farmington, Connecticut
James Lee Pace, MD Los Angeles, California
Jonathan D. Packer, MD Baltimore, Maryland
Cecilia Pascual Garrido, MD Boulder, Colorado
Thilo Patzer, MD Dusseldorf, Germany
Albert W. Pearsall IV, MD Mobile, Alabama
Ryan Thomas Pitts, MD St. Louis, Missouri
John Polousky, MD Plano, Texas
Matthew Posner, MD West Point, New York
Chadwick C. Prodromos, MD Glenview, Illinois
Benedikt L. Proffen, MD Boston, Massachusetts
Stephen Rabuck, MD Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Bart Rask, MD Hillsboro, Oregon
Bill Ribbans, MD Northampton, United Kingdom
Jonathan C. Riboh, MD Durham, North Carolina
Neetu Rishiraj, PhD Vancouver, Canada
Robert C. Schenck Jr, MD Albuquerque, New Mexico
Mark S. Schickendantz, MD Cleveland, Ohio
Seth L. Sherman, MD Columbia, Missouri
Jason J. Shin, MD Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Jason E. Simon, MD Nashua, New Hampshire
Domenick J. Sisto, MD Sherman Oaks, California
Mark Slabaugh, MD Monument, Colorado
David H. Sohn, MD Toledo, Ohio
Alvin Weii Su, MD, PhD Richmond Heights, Missouri
Misty Suri, MD New Orleans, Louisiana
Timothy N. Taft, MD University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Thomas Tischer, MD Rostock, Germany
Georgios Nikolaos Tzoanos, MD Herakion, Greece
Soshi Uchida, MD, PhD Kitakyushu, Japan
Carola F. Van Eck, MD, PhD Los Angeles, California
Piero Volpi, MD Rozzano, Italy
William Robert Walsh, PhD Randwick, Australia
Brian R. Waterman, MD El Paso, Texas
Jonathan Watson, MD Woodridge, Illinois
Stephen C. Weber, MD Sacramento, California
Feng Wei, PhD East Lansing, Michigan
Bryan J. Whitfield, MD Decatur, Georgia
Ivan Ho-Bun Wong, MD, FRCS(C) Halifax, Canada
Thomas Y. Wu Ventura, California
Douglas Wyland, MD Spartanburg, South Carolina
Justin Shu Yang, MD Los Angeles, California
Yi-Meng Yen, MD, PhD Boston, Massachusetts
Stefano Zaffagnini, MD Bologna, Italy
Alan Zhang, MD San Fransisco, California
  • CABI: Abstracts on Hygiene and Communicable Diseases
  • CABI: CAB Abstracts
  • CABI: Global Health
  • CINAHL
  • Clarivate Analytics: BIOSIS Previews
  • Clarivate Analytics: Biological Abstracts
  • Clarivate Analytics: Current Contents - Clinical Medicine
  • Clarivate Analytics: Science Citation Index
  • EMBASE
  • Focus On: Sports Science & Medicine
  • Index Medicus
  • InfoTrac (full text)
  • Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Abstracts
  • MEDLINE
  • Ovid: Allied and Complementary Medicine Database
  • SafetyLit
  • Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science)
  • Scopus
  • World Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology Abstracts (in CAB Abstracts Database)
  • The editor of AJSM, Bruce Reider, can be contacted via email at breider@ajsm.org.

    The American Journal of Sports Medicine is the official publication of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Manuscripts must not be under simultaneous consideration by any other publication, before or during the peer-review process. Papers presented at AOSSM meetings must be submitted to the Journal for first rights of refusal. Authors are responsible for submitting papers of presentations directly to the Journal. Articles published in AJSM may not be published elsewhere without written permission from the publisher.

    Manuscripts should cite any other work by one or more of the co-authors that is relevant to the subject matter of the current submission or that used any of the same subjects, animals, or specimens being reported in the current submission. This includes manuscripts that are currently under preparation, are being considered by journals, are accepted for publication, or already published. In any of these cases, the relationship to the current submission should be made clear.

    All review articles (such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses) submitted will be considered for the Current Concepts section. Authors with ideas for current concepts should contact the associate editor, Timothy Foster, MD, to find out if AJSM has recently published a review article on that topic of if there is a similar submission in progress. Contact Dr Foster at currentconcepts@ajsm.org to inquire about your idea, or submit already completed papers directly to the journal at http://ajsm-submit.highwire.org.

    Submit manuscripts online at http://ajsm-submit.highwire.org

    Download the AJSM Submission Guidelines

    Download the AJSM Ethics Policies
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