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Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy
An Integrative Approach

Second Edition
  • Elsie Jones-Smith - Diplomate in Counseling Psychology, American Board of Professional Psychology
Additional resources:

November 2014 | 824 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

This breakthrough edition of Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach sets a new standard in counseling theories books. The Second Edition goes beyond expert coverage of traditional and social constructivist theories with coverage of more contemporary approaches to psychotherapy, including individual chapters on spirituality and psychotherapy, strengths-based therapy, neuroscience and neuropsychotherapy, motivational interviewing, and the expressive arts therapies. In every chapter, the case study of a preadolescent boy demonstrates how each theory can be applied in psychotherapy. Up to date and easy to read, the book engages readers with inner reflection questions that help them apply the theories to the lives of their clients and shows them how to develop their own integrative approach to psychotherapy.

Available with
Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy in Action Video Demonstrations-- available for only $15 when packaged with the text. Use bundle ISBN 978-1-50630-8371 to order the text and video package. Please email your SAGE sales representative for additional details.


Watch two sample clips from the series now:

Existential Approach

Multicultural Approach

About the Video Demonstrations:


In the Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy in Action Video Demonstrations, expert David Hutchinson demonstrates a range of established and newer techniques as he helps a single client—Tyler, a mixed-race adolescent who is facing various challenges. In addition, Dr. Hutchinson provides background and commentary on every approach to help students understand, interpret and reflect on each technique and its application to the client.


Demonstrations include role plays of the following approaches:


  • Person-Centered
  • Motivational Interviewing
  • Cognitive-Behavioral
  • Feminist
  • Existential
  • Multicultural
  • Strengths-Based
  • Neuroscience/Biological

David Hutchinson prepares both undergraduate and graduate students for careers in psychology and counseling. His areas of special focus are group work, addictions, and grieving. A former Peace Corps volunteer, David's priorities include travel and maintaining an international perspective in his life and work. He's trained counselors in Grenada and established sister school relationships between five schools in Vermont and Grenada. In Vermont, David continues his emphasis on intensive, process-oriented coursework with long weekend retreats at an off-campus lodge near Caspian Lake in the woods of the Northeast Kingdom. In 2006, David was honored with the Distinguished Faculty of the Year Award. He holds positions on the boards of the New England School of Addiction Studies and Northwest Counseling and Support Services in Franklin County, Vt. He received his doctoral degree from SUNY Buffalo.

Part I: The First Force in Psychotherapy
Chapter 1: Introduction
Goals of the Book  
Organization of the Book  
Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy  
Choosing a Theoretical Orientation to Therapy  
Integrative Psychotherapy: The Focus of This Text  
Chapter 2: Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Theories
Major Contributor: Sigmund Freud  
The Therapeutic Process  
Therapy Techniques  
Anna Freud  
Erik Erikson  
Object Relations School  
Donald Winnicott  
Self Psychology and Heinz Kohut  
Comparison and Contrasting of Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Theories  
Other Theoriests and Therapy Approaches  
Carl Gustav Jung  
Chapter 3: Adlerian Psychotherapy
Alfred Adler  
Phases of Therapy  
Multicultural Positives  
Empirical Evidence  
Part II: The Second Force in Psychotherapy
Chapter 4: Behavior Therapy and Psychopharmacology
Major Contributors  
Key Concepts  
Theory of Maladaptive Behavior  
Therapeutic Process  
Behavior Therapy Techniques  
Current Trends in Behavior Therapy  
Behavioral Assessment: The Functional Assessment Model  
Multicultural Positives  
Multicultural Blind Spots  
Chapter 5: Cognitive Approaches to Therapy
Major Contributors  
Key Concepts of REBT  
Albert Bandura (1925- ): Social Modeling, Observational Learning, and Self-Efficacy  
Aaron Beck (1921- ): Cognitive Therapy and Depression  
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)  
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)  
Chapter 6: Reality/Choice Therapy
Key Concepts of Reality/Choice Theory  
Reality Therapy/Choice Theory and Maladaptive Behavior  
Total Behavior  
ControlL A Key Component of Reality Therapy  
The 10 Axoms of Choice Therapy  
Seven Deadly Habits and Seven Caring Habits  
Goals of Reality Choice Therapy  
Reality/Choice Therapy and the Therapeutic Process  
Reality Therapy Counseling Techniques  
Reality/Choice Therapy and the Schools  
Multicultural Positivism  
Contributons and Criticisms of Reality Therapy  
Part III: The Third Force in Psychotherapy
Chapter 7: Existential Therapy
The Contributions of Roll May (1904-1994): First Major American Existentialist  
Victor Frankl (1905-1997) and Logotherapy  
Existentialism and the Schools  
Multicultural Positivism  
Contributions and Criticisms of Existential Therapy  
Chapter 8: Person Centered Therapy
Carl Rogers: Brief Historical Overview  
The Person Centered View of Human Nature  
Person-Centered Therapy and Personality Development  
Healthy Psychological Development and the Fully Functioning Person  
Maladaptive Behavior or Psychopathology  
Person-Centered Therapy and the Therapeutic Process  
Person-Centered Therapy Techniques  
Person-Centered Counseling and the Schools  
Multicultural Positives  
Multicultural Blind Spots  
Contributions and Criticisms of Person-Centered Therapy  
Chapter 9: Gestalt Therapy
Philosophical Roots for Gestalt Therapy  
Influence of Existentialism on Gestalt Therapy  
Key Concepts of Gestalt Therapy  
Personality Development: Healthy Development  
Maladaptive Behavior or Psychopathology  
Gestalt Therapy and the Therapeutic Process  
The Therapeutic Relationship: Dialogues Between Therapist and Client  
Gestalt Therapy Techniques: Exercises and Experiments  
Multicultural Positives  
Contributions and Criticisms of Gestalt Therapy  
Chapter 10: Motivational INterviewing and the Stages of Change Theory
Brief Biography of William R. Miller  
Stephen Rollnick  
Key Concepts of Motivational Interviewing  
Nine Strategies for Evoking Change Talk  
Sample Motivational Interviewing (MI) Session  
Key Concepts of the Transtheoretical Model of Change  
Chapter 11: The Expressive Arts Therapies
Key Concepts in Expressive Arts Therapy  
Art Therapy  
Music Therapy  
Play Therapy  
Part IV: The Fourth Force
Chapter 12: Multicultural Psychotherapy Theories
Eurocentric Psychotherapy Theories and Western Values  
What Is Multicultural Counseling?  
Multicultural Counseling Theory: Five Emerging Theories  
Ethnic Self-Schemas and Mental Health Issues  
Multicultural Counseling Techniques  
Contributions and Limitations of Multiculturalism  
Chapter 13: Transcultural Psychotherapy
Commonalities Among Asian Theories of Personality and Psychotherapy  
Japanese Approaches to Psychotherapy  
Morita Therapy  
Chinese Contributions to Psychotherapy: Mindfulness  
African Approaches to Healing and Psychotherapy  
Arab Approaches to Psychotherapy  
Chapter 14: Feminist Therapy and Lesbian and Gay Therapy
Feminist Therapy  
Gay and Lesbian Therapy  
Chapter 15: Solution-Focused Therapy
Solution-Focused Therapy and Social Constructivism  
Brief Therapy: Number of Sessions for Solution-Focused Therapy  
Chapter 16: Narrative Therapy
Brief Overview: Narrative Therapy  
Chapter 17: Integrating Religious/Spiritual Issues During Psychotherapy
Integration of Spirituality/Religion in Psychotherapeutic Approaches  
Brief Historical Overview of Spirituality and Religion in Psychotherapy  
Key Concepts in Spirituality/Religion  
Spirituality and the Therapeutic Relationship  
Spiritual Techniques  
Chapter 18: Strengths-Based Therapy
The Strengths-Based Therapy Model (SBT): Elsie J. Smith  
Core Concepts in the Strengths-Based Therapy Model  
Strengths Development Theory  
Phases of the Strengths-Based Therapy Model (SBT)  
Chapter 19: Family Therapy Approaches
Definition and Function of a Family  
Murray Bowen (1913–1990) and Multigenerational Family Therapy  
The Experiential Family Therapists  
Structural Family Therapy  
Strategic Family Therapy  
Part V: Neuroscience: The Fifth Force
Chapter 20: Neuroscience, Psychotherapy, and Neuropsychotherapy
Important Contributors Connecting Neuroscience and Psychotherapy  
Toward a Theoretical Framework for Neuropsychotherapy  
Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Right Brain and Left Brain Development  
Mental Health from a Neuroscientific Perspective  
Methods and Techniques for Neuropsychotherapy  
Neuroscience and the DSM-5  
Cultural Neuroscience and Multiculturalism  
Chapter 21: Comparing and Contrasting the Theories of Psychotherapy
Worldviews of Theories of Psychotherapy  
Key Concepts of Theories of Psychotherapy  
Therapy Techniques  
Forming a Multicultural Conceptualization of Clients  
Future Outlook of Theoretical Approaches  
Chapter 22: Integrative Psychotherapy
Brief Historical Overview of the Integrative Movement  
Pathways to Psychotherapy Integration  
Multitheoretical Approaches  
Stages of Professional Development as a Therapist  


Instructor Teaching Site

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • A Respondus electronic test bank is available and can be used on PCs. The test bank contains multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter and provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding. Respondus is also compatible with many popular learning management systems so you can easily get your test questions into your online course.

  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course.

  • Instructor Resource Manual provides chapter-specific exercises, classroom activities, annotated bibliographies, and additional resources to enhance the learning experience.

  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides discussion questions to focus and guide your interpretation. 
Student Study Site

The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

  • A Form Library provides an intake form, observation forms, and interview form for use in client assessments.
  • The Theoretical Orientation Scale developed by the author of the text helps students determine their own counseling orientations.
  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
  • Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course material.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides discussion questions to focus and guide your interpretation. 

"Realizing that counseling theory is not the easiest subject for students to grasp, nor the most fun for most students, I have searched for years for a textbook that communicates excitement for theory and also for the value of each theoretical approach for its time in the history of counseling and psychotherapy...In 2011, I found Elsie Jones-Smith’s (2011) Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach, and in using it with my students, it has really help bring counseling theories alive for my students. Jones-Smith has revised her textbook with a second edition, and I am even more excited by it than I was by the first edition. The text is both historical in helping students envision the evolution of counseling and psychotherapy, and foundational, for it grounds the reader in each of the recognized approaches to the subject matter...I believe that Jones-Smith’s (2014) Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach is the most exciting and engaging counseling theories text available today.  It is comprehensive in its coverage of the theories that master’s and doctoral level counselors, psychotherapists, and clinical and counseling psychologists should know and understand.  It is well written and easily read and assimilated by students.  It contains the powerful and engaging tool entitled 'Theoretical Orientation Scale' by Jones-Smith that, if used at the beginning of the theories course, moves students from apprehensive to excited and eager to learn about the theoretical orientations that seem to fit them and those that seem to fit their classmates."

Charles Timothy (Tim) Dickel, Ed.D.
Creighton University

Extremely detailed and makes learning about theories enjoyable

Dr Malik Raheem
Counseling/Special Ed Dept, California State Univ-Fresno
October 9, 2016

Aligns with course objectives; students like the text

Dr Susan Barclay
Leadership Studies, University Of Central Arkansas
February 5, 2015

Looking forward to reviewing the updated edition. My students liked this text last semester!!

Mr Eric Baltrinic
Department of School Psychology, Higher Education, & Counselor Education, University Of Toledo
December 13, 2014
Key features



  • This is the first major textbook to include a chapter on neuroscience as the fifth force in psychotherapy. Five different neuroscience approaches to psychotherapy are presented.
  • An all-new chapter is included on motivational interviewing, one of the most evidenced-based therapies in existence.
  • A new chapter on expressive arts demonstrates how to incorporate music, art, and play therapy into private practice.
  • The Cognitive Behavior chapter includes new sections on dialectical behavior therapy and ACT Therapy (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy).
  • The Behavior Therapy chapter includes a new chart on reinforcement and presents two current behavioral approaches—applied behavioral therapy and behavioral pharmacology.
  • Each chapter has expanded sections on the multicultural positives and multicultural blind spots of the theory.
  • New sections on empirical evidence for each theory of psychotherapy are included in every chapter.
  • The chapter on psychoanalytic and psychodynamic theories contains expanded coverage of self-psychology with charts that compare psychoanalytic theory with ego psychology, object relations, and self-psychology.



  • In addition to traditional and social constructivist theories, this book takes a bold step and includes more contemporary approaches to psychotherapy, with individual chapters on spirituality and psychotherapy, strengths-based therapy, neuroscience and neuropsychotherapy, motivational interviewing, and the expressive arts therapies.
  • A strong multicultural focus is apparent throughout, including coverage of counseling gay and lesbian communities, counseling from a feminist perspective, and Eastern approaches to psychotherapy.
  • Tables and charts throughout the book compare and contrast theories and clarify key concepts.
  • Brief biographies of each theorist’s life lead to lively classroom discussions surrounding the impact of a theorist’s life on the development of his/her approach to psychotherapy. The biographical descriptions are engaging and reveal the personal side of the theorists.
  • Extensive question and answer sections at the end of each chapter promote active involvement and reflection.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 10

Chapter 20

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