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American Corrections
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American Corrections
Concepts and Controversies

Second Edition
Additional resources:


February 2018 | 512 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

“It is a thorough and focused work on American corrections providing a solid opportunity for students to learn not only how the correctional system works but also to understand its ever increasing complexities.”
                                                                                                                    —Dorie Astle, Southwestern Oklahoma State University

American Corrections, Second Edition offers students a contemporary, issues-oriented introduction that covers every aspect of corrections, prompting students to think critically about complex issues that are affecting the current U.S. correctional system. Incorporating the most recent theory, research, and data available, the Second Edition encourages students to explore the most interesting and progressive developments in correctional policy and practice. Authors Barry A. Krisberg, Susan Marchionna, and Christopher J. Hartney draw from years of professional experience to give students a practical knowledge of corrections, as well as provide a framework for thoughtful analysis into what is plaguing the American correctional system and a realistic exploration of the solutions that could make a difference.

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Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
Part I: History and Sentencing
 
Chapter 1: The Corrections System
Learning Objectives

 
A Legacy of Crisis and Turmoil

 
Corrections as a System

 
Corrections and Society

 
A Critical View of the System

 
A Keen Eye Toward the Future

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 2: A Historical Perspective on Punishment and Social Structure
Learning Objectives

 
Discerning Historical Constructs

 
Penance and Fines

 
Social Change in the Later Middle Ages

 
The Discovery of Imprisonment

 
Galley Slavery, Transportation, and the Emergence of Imprisonment

 
The Industrial Revolution and Corrections

 
Zebulon Brockway and the Rise of the Adult Reformatory

 
Corrections and the Progressive Era (1880–1920)

 
After the Progressive Era (1920–1960)

 
The Era of Civil Rights and Community Corrections (1960–1970)

 
The Prisons Explode (1970–1980)

 
The Demise of Rehabilitation and the Get-Tough Era (1970–Present)

 
The Return of Enlightened Corrections Policy

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 3: The Purpose of Punishment and Sentencing Trends
Learning Objectives

 
How Sentencing Works

 
The Presentence Report

 
Sentencing Theories

 
Contemporary Movements in Sentencing Laws and Policies

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Part II: Correctional Practice
 
Chapter 4: Jails
Learning Objectives

 
The Functions of Jails

 
Who Is in Jail?

 
Facts About Jails

 
Jail Administration

 
Jail Procedures

 
In-Custody Programs

 
Alternatives to Incarceration

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 5: Probation and Alternatives to Incarceration
Learning Objectives

 
What Is Probation?

 
Who Is on Probation?

 
A Brief History of Probation

 
Two Key Perspectives on Probation

 
Probation Administration

 
The Role of Probation Officers

 
Sentencing and Investigation

 
Supervision

 
Violation, Revocation, and Termination

 
Does Probation Work? Probation Research

 
Alternatives to Incarceration

 
Evaluating Alternatives to Incarceration

 
Cost Savings

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 6: Prisons
Learning Objectives

 
The Means to an End

 
Design of Prisons

 
What the Numbers Say

 
Prison Costs

 
The Federal System

 
State Prisons

 
Military Prisons and the War on Terror

 
Security Levels

 
The Supermax

 
Programs and Services

 
The Prison Environment

 
Discipline

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 7: Coming Home: Reentry and Parole
Learning Objectives

 
Parole as a Form of Community Corrections

 
The Early History of Parole

 
Parole Basics

 
Parole Authorities

 
The Challenges of Reentry

 
Reentry Data

 
Perspectives on the Current Purpose and Practice of Parole

 
What Works in Parole

 
Evidence-Based Practice and Parole

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 8: Juvenile Corrections
Learning Objectives

 
A Brief History

 
The Past 30 Years: More Cycles of Scandal and Reform

 
The Structure of the Juvenile Justice System

 
Characteristics of Juveniles in Custody

 
Overrepresentation of Youth of Color

 
Young Women and Juvenile Corrections

 
Recidivism Rates and Juvenile Corrections

 
Juvenile Corrections Fads

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 9: The Corrections Workforce
Learning Objectives

 
Corrections Work

 
Service Providers and Treatment in Custody

 
Why Corrections Work?

 
Characteristics of the Corrections Workforce

 
Correctional Staffing

 
Education and Training

 
The Correctional Hierarchy

 
Sustaining a Workforce

 
Job Stress

 
Progressive Developments in Leadership

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Part III: Critical Issues and Policy Questions
 
Chapter 10: Holding Corrections Accountable
Learning Objectives

 
State Regulatory Bodies

 
Professional Standards

 
Litigating in the Courts to Stop Abusive Practices

 
Legislating Reforms

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 11: Corrections and the Color Line
Learning Objectives

 
Measuring the Extent of the Problem

 
Race and Ethnicity Behind the Walls

 
African American Disproportion in the Criminal Justice System

 
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and the Corrections System

 
Native Americans and the Corrections System

 
Latinos and the Corrections System

 
Immigration and Incarceration

 
Understanding the Causes of Racial Disparity in Corrections

 
Racial Profiling

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 12: Women in the Corrections System
Learning Objectives

 
The “Pink Syndrome”

 
The Rising Tide of Incarcerated Women—What the Numbers Say

 
Young Women and the System

 
Women’s Pathways Into Crime

 
A Complex Mix of Risk Factors

 
Coping With Incarceration

 
Programs and Services

 
Operational Issues in Custody

 
Conditions of Confinement

 
Research on Women and the Justice System

 
Moving Forward With Research on Women

 
Prospects for Gender-Responsive Programming

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 13: Challenging and Vulnerable Populations
Learning Objectives

 
Prisons and Jails as Community Health Providers

 
A Wide Range of Medical Problems

 
Health Care Services

 
Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails

 
The Increasing Elderly Prison Population

 
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Inmates

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 14: Death Row and the Death Penalty
Learning Objectives

 
The Controversial Moral Imperative

 
The State of Capital Punishment

 
Characteristics of Death Row Inmates

 
Legal Challenges to the Death Penalty

 
Juveniles and the Death Penalty

 
The Death Sentence and Mental Competence

 
Innocence and Those Awaiting Executions

 
Costs of Capital Punishment

 
The Problem of Lethal Injection

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Part IV: The Effectiveness and Future of American Corrections
 
Chapter 15: The Privatization of Corrections
Learning Objectives

 
History and Functioning of Private Prisons

 
Major Private Prison Companies

 
How Private Prisons Function

 
Other Forms of Corrections Privatization

 
Private Prison Performance

 
Impact of Privatization on Local Economies

 
Privatization, Innovation, and Reform

 
The Profit Motive and Conflict of Interest

 
Contracting, Oversight, and Monitoring

 
Are Private Prisons Necessary?

 
Further Research

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Chapter 16: The Politics and Future of Mass Incarceration
Learning Objectives

 
Mass Incarceration and Electoral Politics

 
In Whose Interest?

 
An Opening to Change

 
What the Public Actually Thinks About Corrections Policy

 
Confronting the Politics of Mass Incarceration

 
Is Money the Currency of Reform?

 
Recruiting New Allies to Corrections Reform

 
Summary: The Way Forward

 
Discussion Questions

 
Key Terms

 
Notes

 
Digital Resources

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index
 
About the Authors

Supplements

Student Study Site

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  • Carefully selected, web-based video resources feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.
  • Links to podcasts and audio resources cover important topics and are designed to supplement key points within the text.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
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  • Assignable SAGE Premium Video (available via the interactive eBook version, linked through SAGE coursepacks) that is tied to learning objectives, and curated exclusively for this text to bring concepts to life and appeal to different learning styles, featuring:
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    • Comprehensive, downloadable, easy-to-use Media Guide in the Coursepack for every video resource, listing the chapter to which the video content is tied, matching learning objective(s), a helpful description of the video content, and assessment question
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  • Sample course syllabi provide suggested models for use when creating the syllabi for your courses.
  • Integrated links to the interactive eBook that make it easy for your students to maximize their study time with this “anywhere, anytime” mobile-friendly version of the text. It also offers access to more digital tools and resources, including SAGE Premium Video
  • All tables and figures from the textbook

“Complete, up to date, engaging text with unique features making it appropriate for either face-to-face or online courses in contemporary corrections.”

Ronald Everett
University of Alaska Anchorage

“It is a thorough and focused work on American corrections providing a solid opportunity for students to learn not only how the correctional system works but also to understand its ever increasing complexities.”

Dorie Astle
Southwestern Oklahoma State University

“This book is not too thick that students would feel over whelmed by purchasing it or discouraged from reading.”

Makeda Carr
Virginia State University

“I would (and have) highly recommended this text to colleagues because of its direct, comprehensive approach to critically evaluating the current landscape of the American correctional system. I would also mention the critical lens through which the text is written, and emphasize the importance of this perspective as students become educated in the area of corrections.”

Darin Haerle
California State University, Chico

“Provides thought-provoking and well-cited sidebars and extensive and helpful supplemental pedagogical resources.”

Cary Adkinson
Texas Wesleyan University
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • Up-to-date coverage of today’s key issues reflects the latest developments in corrections, including the fiscal impact of corrections, reforms in corrections, and an expanded use of alternatives to incarceration.
  • Debates around the effectiveness of corrections encourage students to think critically about probation, problem-solving courts, split sentences and flash incarceration, new recidivism studies, rates of racial and ethnic disparity in adult and juvenile corrections, and overrepresentation of youth of color in prisons.
  • Recent trends are discussed to give students a clearer picture of how the correctional system has transformed over the years, including the decline in the practice of incarcerating juveniles in large prisons, the rising incarceration rate for women, the treatment of mentally ill inmates, the increase of private prisons, and more.
  • Incisive exploration of policies proposed by the Trump administration shows students how the current administration’s approach differs from Obama-era sentencing reforms and encourages students to think critically about the potent impacts on the correctional system.
  • New Spotlight boxes introduce students to key issues such as immigration and detention and the opioid addiction epidemic.
  • Updated references, statistics, court rulings, and data help students understand the latest trends in correctional practices.
  • SAGE coursepacks allows instructors to import high-quality content into their school’s learning management system (LMS) with no access codes.

 KEY FEATURES:

  • The book’s analytic framework focuses on evidence-based issues and significant reform measures that affect the current crisis in the U.S. correctional system to encourage students to think critically about key issues.
  • A unique chapter on privatization (Chapter 15) encourages students to explore the issues surrounding the growing privatization of correctional facilities and programs. 
  • Spotlight features help students focus on key issues in corrections, such as the three strikes law, solitary confinement, and overcrowding.
  • In the Courts features highlight important legal cases by discussing both the facts and the case’s significance to historical developments.
  • A You Decide feature facilitates critical thinking by presenting students with an issues-based scenario and asking them to decide what they think should be done.
  • Learning objectives, end-of-chapter summaries, review questions, and references for further reading and research help students master key concepts and hone their critical thinking skills.
  • SAGE edge provides students helpful tools, including eFlashcards, practice quizzes, a customizable action plan, and more, in one easy-to-use online environment.

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