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“This text provides students and instructors with a detailed examination of communication in the criminal justice system. Specific issues confronting criminal justice practitioners in their daily activities, including interactions with the public, are explored. The text demonstrates appropriate methods of communication and provides direction for overcoming difficulties in the communication process.”
—Brooke Miller, PhD, University of North Texas

“I would certainly describe this book as a must-have as an addition to any course that has a writing component. The information contained is necessary for students of criminology . . . [and] will aid students in formal writing as well as those going into the criminal justice field.”
—Dianne Berger-Hill, MAS, Old Dominion University

Effective Communication in Criminal Justice is the perfect companion for any criminal justice course that discusses communication and writing. Authors Robert E. Grubb and K. Virginia Hemby teach students how to be both effective writers and communicators—essential skills for anyone interested in criminal justice. Going beyond report writing, this book helps readers become more confident presenters and digital communicators while encouraging students to adapt their communication styles to meet the needs of diverse populations. Students will not only improve their communication and writing skills but also gain specific strategies for succeeding in careers related to policing, courts, corrections, and private security.  

 


 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
PART I: THE BASICS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
 
Chapter 1: Communication: Words Are Not Enough
What Is Communication?

 
Communication Styles

 
Types of Communication

 
Flow of Communication

 
Barriers to Communication

 
Overcoming Communication Barriers

 
Communication Across Generations

 
Definitions and Characteristics of Generations

 
Internal Communication Across Generations

 
Barriers to Successful Communication Between and Among Generations

 
Addressing the Barriers and Meeting Generational Communication Needs

 
Baby Boomers in Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice

 
Generation Xers in Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice

 
The Millennial Generation in Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice

 
Leaders in Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice

 
Suggestions for Bridging the Communication Generation Gap With External Groups

 
 
Chapter 2: Think Before You Speak: The Verbal Component
Verbal Communication: The Oral Component

 
Listening

 
The Listening Process

 
Types of Ineffective Listeners

 
Barriers to Listening

 
Guidelines for Effective Listening

 
Criminal Justice Professionals and Verbal Communication

 
Responding

 
Verbal Communication: The Written Component

 
Writing Techniques: Choosing the Right Words

 
Developing and Writing Effective Sentences and Paragraphs

 
Law Enforcement Professionals and Verbal Communication Reporting

 
Testifying

 
Verbal Communication: The Video Component

 
Media Relations and Law Enforcement: The History

 
Law Enforcement Professionals: Responding to the Media

 
 
Chapter 3: Actions Speak Louder Than Words: Nonverbal Communication
The Functions of Nonverbal Communication

 
Kinesics: The Science of Body Language

 
Paralinguistics: The Voice

 
Proxemics: Space and Objects

 
Haptics: Touch

 
Interpreting Nonverbal Body Language in Criminal Justice Professions

 
Body Movements

 
Proxemics: Space and Objects

 
Facial Color

 
Facial Expressions

 
Paralanguage (The Voice)

 
Limitations and Exceptions to Nonverbal Communication

 
Checklist for Improving Your Nonverbal Communication

 
 
PART II: PREPARING FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
 
Chapter 4: Grammar: A Lesson in the Basics
Parts of Speech

 
Nouns

 
Pronouns

 
Verbs

 
Adjectives and Adverbs

 
Prepositions

 
Conjunctions

 
Parts of the Sentence

 
Sentence Errors

 
Sentence Fragments, Run-On Sentences, and Parallel Structure

 
Punctuation

 
Period, Question Mark, and Exclamation Point

 
Comma

 
Semicolon

 
Colon

 
Frequently Confused Words Most Frequently Confused Words

 
Abbreviations Versus Full Words

 
Titles and Ranks

 
Degrees and Certifications

 
Time, Days, and Months

 
Acronyms and Familiar Initials

 
Address Abbreviations

 
State Abbreviations

 
Capitalization

 
Spelling Errors

 
Checklist for Improving Your Use of a Computer Spell-Checker

 
Fifty Most Commonly Misspelled Words

 
 
Chapter 5: Preparing to Speak: Presentations and Visual Aids
Purposes of Speeches

 
Impromptu Style

 
Extemporaneous Style

 
Manuscript Style

 
Memorized Style

 
Guidelines for an Effective Oral Presentation

 
Your Purpose

 
Your Audience or Listeners

 
Organizing Your Presentation

 
The Perception of the Speaker

 
The Speaker’s Voice

 
The Parts of an Oral Presentation or Speech

 
Using Visuals in Your Presentation

 
Types of Visual Aids

 
Designing Visual Aids

 
Points to Remember in Using Visual Aids Effectively

 
Overcoming Barriers to Effective Presentations

 
Checklist for Preparing and Organizing Oral Presentations

 
Getting Ready to Speak

 
Organizing the Introduction

 
Organizing the Body

 
Organizing the Conclusion

 
Designing Visual Aids

 
Developing Electronic Presentations

 
Prior to Your Presentation

 
The Presentation

 
Televised or Recorded Presentations (News Reports, Presentations, and Updates)

 
Nonverbal Messages

 
 
PART III: EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN YOUR PROFESSIONAL SPHERE
 
Chapter 6: Written Communication: An Agency’s Lifeline
Writing Principles for Report Development

 
Words

 
Sentences

 
Paragraphs

 
Topic Sentences

 
Transitions

 
Consistency

 
Report Writing in Criminal Justice

 
Reports in Law Enforcement

 
Reports in Corrections

 
Reports in Private Security

 
Field Notes and Note Taking

 
Guidelines for the Note-Taking Process

 
Maintenance of Records: Field Notes, Reports, Interviews, and Evidence

 
Records Management Systems

 
Life Cycle of Records

 
 
Chapter 7: Interviewing and Interrogating: Witnesses and Suspects
The Interview Process

 
Interviewing

 
Interrogating

 
Preparing for an Interview or Interrogation

 
The Setting

 
Interview and Interrogation Questions

 
Legal Issues

 
Terminating the Interview or Interrogation

 
 
Chapter 8: The Court System: Preparing for and Testifying in Court
The Courtroom Setting

 
The Participants in the Criminal Courtroom Drama

 
Judge

 
Jury

 
Attorneys

 
Witness

 
Defendant

 
The Participants in the Civil Courtroom Drama

 
The Grand Jury

 
The Criminal Trial

 
The Law Enforcement Officer’s Role in the Trial Process Preparing to Testify

 
The Corrections Officer’s Role in the Trial Process

 
The Private Security Officer’s Role in the Trial Process

 
The Officer’s Appearance in Court Testifying

 
 
Chapter 9: Technology and Communication: A New Frontier
Technology and Today’s Criminal Justice Agency

 
The Intranet (Organizational Network)

 
Mobile Data Terminals (MDTs)

 
Department or Bureau Computers

 
Electronic Mail (E-Mail)

 
Texting

 
Technology in the Courtroom and in Corrections

 
New Technologies in the Courtroom

 
New Technologies in Corrections

 
Mobile Device Apps

 
Law Enforcement Apps

 
Corrections Apps

 
Private Security Apps

 
Social Media: Criminal Justice’s Newest Weapon

 
Writing for Social Media

 
Bulletin Boards

 
Listservs

 
Electronic Journals

 
Law Enforcement and the Internet

 
Cybercrime and Cybersecurity

 
Cybersecurity

 
Cybercrime

 
 
Chapter 10: Conflict Resolution and Other Special Forms of Communication
Conflict

 
Needs

 
Perceptions

 
Power

 
Values

 
Feelings and Emotions

 
Conflict Resolution Conflict Resolution in Criminal

 
Justice

 
The Negotiation Team

 
Hostage and Nonhostage Situations

 
Correctional Facilities and Hostage Situations

 
Hostage Negotiation Equipment

 
Communication: The Small-Group or Team Process

 
Small-Group Communication

 
Effective Small-Group Characteristics

 
Number of Members

 
Cohesion

 
Task Commitment

 
Group Rules

 
Group Consensus

 
Preparation

 
Role Requirements

 
Leadership Functions

 
Group Interaction

 
Limitations and Strengths of Small Groups

 
Limitations

 
Strengths

 
Cultures and Groups

 
Individualism

 
Individual Assertiveness

 
Equality

 
Progress and Change

 
Uncertainty and Risk

 
Informality

 
 
PART IV: EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION WITH DIFFERENT POPULATIONS
 
Chapter 11: Communication With Diverse Populations: Ethnic/Cultural Groups and Children and Youth
Characteristics of Culture

 
Dimensions of Culture

 
Context

 
Time Orientation

 
Power Distance

 
Individualism Versus Collectivism

 
Communication Style

 
How We View Ourselves

 
Criminal Justice Agencies: Communicating With Diverse Groups

 
Law Enforcement and Immigrant Cultures

 
Law Enforcement and Minority Cultures

 
Enhancing Communication in Multicultural Communities

 
Children and Youth

 
Definition of Youth

 
Interviewing and Interrogating Juvenile Suspects

 
Interviewing Juvenile Victims and Witnesses

 
Gangs

 
Gang Awareness

 
Identification

 
Gang Recruitment of Youth

 
Early Involvement Signs

 
Signs of Actual Gang Membership

 
Communicating With Gang Members

 
 
Chapter 12: Communication With Special Groups: Cognitive, Physiological, Psychological, and Emotional Disabilities
Law Enforcement and the ADA

 
Corrections and the ADA Juvenile Justice

 
Private Security and the ADA

 
Categories, Definitions, and Explanations

 
Cognitive (Intellectual/Developmental) Disabilities

 
Physiological or Physical Disabilities

 
Psychological Disabilities

 
Interacting With People With Disabilities

 
Addressing the Individual and Not the Disability

 
First Steps

 
Guidelines for Writing About People With Disabilities

 
Service Dogs and Disabilities

 
Checklist for Interaction With

 
Individuals With Disabilities

 
 
Endnotes
 
Index
 
About the Authors

“Comprehensive text on the significance of all aspects of communication in the criminal justice field.”

Katherine J. Ely
Lock Haven University

“This text provides students and instructors with a detailed examination of communication in the criminal justice system. Specific issues confronting criminal justice practitioners in their daily activities, including interactions with the public, are explored. The text demonstrates appropriate methods of communication and provides direction for overcoming difficulties in the communication process.”

Brooke Miller, Ph.D.
University of North Texas

“I would certainly describe this book as a must have as an addition to any course that has a writing component. The information contained thus far is necessary for students of criminology…will aid students in formal writing as well as those going into the criminal justice field”

Dianne Berger-Hill, MAS
Old Dominion University, Sociology and Criminal Justice Department

“This text provides faculty teaching justice studies communications courses with a practical approach to both foundational issues necessary for all communications courses, as well as the sections specific to the justice studies field.”

Dr. James C. Brown, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice
Utica College

“To be quite honest, I was excited about the ideas I had while previewing the text.  I would strongly encourage colleagues to consider using this in the construction of a course focused on “Writing in the Discipline”.  I think there is great potential for students (and instructors) to have fun writing while not realizing that they are actually learning valuable information.”

Lauren M. Barrow, Ph.D.
Chestnut Hill College
Key features

KEY FEATURES: 

  • Specific coverage of effective communication strategies that relate to each area of criminal justice, including policing, courts, corrections, and private security, offers students a robust overview of all aspects of communication in the criminal justice field.
  • Unique coverage of nonverbal communication, digital communication, conflict resolution, and communication with special populations helps students learn to adapt their communication styles to specific situations. 
  • Helpful checklists remind students to keep practicing good communication techniques. 
  • Real-world examples of effective communication in criminal justice show students how the concepts are relevant to their future careers. 
  • End-of-chapter discussion questions and ethical issue exercises provide students with the opportunity to practice and apply the concepts covered in each chapter.

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