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Evaluation for Health Policy and Health Care
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Evaluation for Health Policy and Health Care
A Contemporary Data-Driven Approach

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September 2019 | 336 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
This is the contemporary, applied text on evaluation that your students need.

Evaluation for Health Policy and Health Care: A Contemporary Data-Driven Approach explores the best practices and applications for producing, synthesizing, visualizing, using, and disseminating health care evaluation research and reports. This graduate-level text will appeal to those interested in cutting-edge health program and health policy evaluation in this era of health care innovation. Editors Steven Sheingold and Anupa Bir’s core text focuses on quantitative, qualitative, and meta-analytic approaches to analysis, providing a guide for both those executing evaluations and those using the data to make policy decisions. It is designed to provide real-world applications within health policy to make learning more accessible and relevant, and to highlight the remaining challenges for using evidence to develop policy.
 

 
List of Figures and Tables
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Editors
 
PART I. SETTING UP FOR EVALUATION
 
Chapter 1. Introduction
Background: Challenges and Opportunities

 
Evaluation and Health Care Delivery System Transformation

 
The Global Context for Considering Evaluation Methods and Evidence-Based Decision Making

 
Book’s Intent

 
 
Chapter 2. Setting the Stage
Typology for Program Evaluation

 
Planning an Evaluation: How Are the Changes Expected to Occur?

 
Developing Evaluations: Some Preliminary Methodological Thoughts

 
Prospectively Planned and Integrated Program Evaluation

 
Summary

 
 
Chapter 3. Measurement and Data
Guiding Principles

 
Measure Types

 
Measures of Structure

 
Measures of Process

 
Measures of Outcomes

 
Selecting Appropriate Measures

 
Data Sources

 
Looking Ahead

 
Summary

 
 
PART II. EVALUATION METHODS
 
Chapter 4. Causality and Real-World Evaluation
Evaluating Program/Policy Effectiveness: The Basics of Inferring Causality

 
Defining Causality

 
Assignment Mechanisms

 
Three Key Treatment Effects

 
Statistical and Real-World Considerations for Estimating Treatment Effects

 
Summary

 
 
Chapter 5. Randomized Designs
Randomized Controlled Trials

 
Stratified Randomization

 
Group Randomized Trials

 
Randomized Designs for Health Care

 
Summary

 
 
Chapter 6. Quasi-experimental Methods: Propensity Score Techniques
Dealing With Selection Bias

 
Comparison Group Formation and Propensity Scores

 
Regression and Regression on the Propensity Score to Estimate Treatment Effects

 
Summary

 
 
Chapter 7. Quasi-experimental Methods: Regression Modeling and Analysis
Interrupted Time Series Designs

 
Comparative Interrupted Time Series

 
Difference-in-Difference Designs

 
Confounded Designs

 
Instrument Variables to Estimate Treatment Effects

 
Regression Discontinuity to Estimate Treatment Effects

 
Fuzzy Regression Discontinuity Design

 
Additional Considerations: Dealing With Nonindependent Data

 
Summary

 
 
Chapter 8. Treatment Effect Variations Among the Treatment Group
Context: Factors Internal to the Organization

 
Evaluation Approaches and Data Sources to Incorporate Contextual Factors

 
Context: External Factors That Affect the Delivery or Potential Effectiveness of the Treatment

 
Individual-Level Factors That May Cause Treatment Effect to Vary

 
Methods for Examining the Individual Level Heterogeneity of Treatment Effects

 
Multilevel Factors

 
Importance of Incorporating Contextual Factors Into an Evaluation

 
Summary

 
 
Chapter 9. The Impact of Organizational Context on Heterogeneity of Outcomes: Lessons for Implementation Science
Context for the Evaluation: Some Examples From Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation

 
Evaluation for Complex Systems Change

 
Frameworks for Implementation Research

 
Organizational Assessment Tools

 
Analyzing Implementation Characteristics

 
Summary

 
 
PART III. MAKING EVALUATION MORE RELEVANT TO POLICY
 
Chapter 10. Evaluation Model Case Study: The Learning System at the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation
Step 1: Establish Clear Aims

 
Step 2: Develop an Explicit Theory of Change

 
Step 3: Create the Context Necessary for a Test of the Model

 
Step 4: Develop the Change Strategy

 
Step 5: Test the Changes

 
Step 6: Measure Progress Toward Aim

 
Step 7: Plan for Spread

 
Summary

 
 
Chapter 11. Program Monitoring: Aligning Decision Making With Evaluation
Nature of Decisions

 
Cases: Examples of Decisions

 
Evidence Thresholds for Decision Making in Rapid-Cycle Evaluation

 
Summary

 
 
Chapter 12. Alternative Ways of Analyzing Data in Rapid-Cycle Evaluation
Statistical Process Control Methods

 
Regression Analysis for Rapid-Cycle Evaluation

 
A Bayesian Approach to Program Evaluation

 
Summary

 
 
Chapter 13. Synthesizing Evaluation Findings
Meta-analysis

 
Meta-evaluation Development for Health Care Demonstrations

 
Meta-regression Analysis

 
Bayesian Meta-analysis

 
Putting It Together

 
Summary

 
 
Chapter 14. Decision Making Using Evaluation Results
Research, Evaluation, and Policymaking

 
Program/Policy Decision Making Using Evidence: A Conceptual Model

 
Multiple Alternatives for Decisions

 
A Research Evidence/Policy Analysis Example: Socioeconomic Status and the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program

 
Other Policy Factors Considered

 
Advice for Researchers and Evaluators

 
 
Chapter 15. Communicating Research and Evaluation Results to Policymakers
Suggested Strategies for Addressing Communication Issues

 
Other Considerations for Tailoring and Presenting Results

 
Closing Thoughts on Communicating Research Results

 
 
Appendix A: The Primer Measure Set
 
Appendix B: Quasi-experimental Methods That Correct for Selection Bias: Further Comments and Mathematical Derivations
Propensity Score Methods

 
An Alternative to Propensity Score Methods

 
Assessing Unconfoundedness

 
Using Propensity Scores to Estimate Treatment Effects

 
Unconfounded Design When Assignment Is at the Group Level

 
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site
study.sagepub.com/sheingold1e

Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:
  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. 
  • Lecture Notes, including Outline and Objectives, which may be used for lecture and/or student handouts.
  • Case studies from SAGE Research Methods accompanied by critical thinking/discussion questions.  
  • Tables and figures from the printed book are available in an easily-downloadable format for use in papers, hand-outs, and presentations.
 
Student Study Site

Open-access Student Resources include case studies from SAGE Research Methods accompanied by critical thinking/discussion questions.

 “This text offers a general introduction to the process and methods used to conduct rigorous and timely evaluations of health policies and programs using real-world examples. It would make an excellent text for a program evaluation course.”

Brad Wright
University of Iowa

“A must read for anyone interested in monitoring and evaluation! The text does a great job addressing the important ingredients for a successful evaluation.”

Sandra Schrouder
Barry University

 “Evaluating health policies and programs can be a very challenging process because the evaluation itself is so often an afterthought, leading to a variety of data issues that can produce biased results and poor policy decisions. This book provides an outstanding–yet highly accessible–overview of a wide variety of methods that evaluators can use to minimize these biases and generate robust evidence for decision-makers.”

Larry R. Hearld
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Key features
KEY FEATURES:
  • Pedagogical features like learning objectives, discussion questions, and practice data and code make this easy to use in a classroom setting.
  • Applications and modern methodological approaches make the book useful in evaluation settings.
  • Real-word examples throughout keep the evaluation methods anchored within the health policy discourse.
  • The book focuses on communicating evidence-based results to policymakers, including by using interactive and visual methods.
 

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