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Published in Association with International Headache Society

eISSN: 14682982 | ISSN: 03331024 | Current volume: 41 | Current issue: 4 Frequency: 14 Times/YearTimes/Year

To submit your manuscript online, please click here: SAGE TRACK

Cephalalgia contains original papers on all aspects of headache. The journal provides an international forum for original research papers, review articles and short communications.

Published monthly on behalf of the International Headache Society. Readers receive timely cutting edge original articles, editorials, reviews, letters and clinical correspondence on both clinical and basic research. Subscribers also receive themed Supplements and news on events within the headache community.

Recently published topics include:

· diagnosis and management of primary and secondary headaches and related syndromes

· pathophysiology

· mechanisms

· pharmacology

· epidemiology

· imaging

· genetics

· medico-legal aspects

· pharmacoeconomics.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Previous Editors of the Journal:
Ottar Sjaastad (Founding Editor), Marcia Wilkinson, K Michael Welch, Peter J Goadsby, David Dodick.

Cephalalgia contains original peer reviewed papers on all aspects of headache. The journal provides an international forum for original research papers, review articles and short communications.

Published monthly on behalf of the International Headache Society. Readers receive timely cutting edge original articles, editorials, reviews, letters and clinical correspondence on both clinical and basic research. Subscribers also receive themed Supplements and news on events within the headache community. Recently published topics include:

  • diagnosis and management of primary and secondary headaches and related syndromes
  • pathophysiology
  • mechanisms
  • pharmacology
  • epidemiology
  • imaging
  • genetics
  • medico-legal aspects
  • pharmacoeconomics.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Arne May Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Clinic Hamburg Eppendorf (UKE) Hamburg, Germany
Associate Editors
Frank Andrasik University of Memphis, USA
Messoud Ashina Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Rafael Benoliel Rutgers University, USA
Rami Burstein Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, USA
Shih-Pin Chen Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan
Gianluca Coppola Sapienza University of Rome Polo Pontino, Italy
Hans-Christoph Diener University Essen, Germany
Anne Ducros Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France
Stefan Evers University of Münster, Germany
Larus S. Gudmundsson University of Iceland, Iceland
Andrea Harriott Partners Healthcare System, USA
Andrew Hershey University of Cincinnati, USA
Jan Hoffmann Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK
Philip R. Holland King's College London, UK
Timothy T. Houle Harvard Medical School, USA
Delphine Magis University of Liège, Belgium
Karl Messlinger University of Erlangen Nurenberg, Germany
Patricia Pozo-Rosich Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Spain
Ann Scher Uniformed Services University, USA
Todd Schwedt Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, USA
Shuu-Jiun Wang Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan
Alessandro Zagami Prince of Wales Hospital, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Sydney, Australia
Deputy Associate Editor
Andrew Charles University of California, USA
Managing Editor
Wendy Krank Managing Editor, USA
Biostatistics Editor
James S. McGinley Vector Psychometric Group, USA
Historical Section Editor
Peter J. Koehler Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Studies, Maastricht University, Netherlands
Junior Editor
Mi Ji Lee Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, South Korea
Kuan Po Peng Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Clinic Hamburg Eppendorf (UKE) Hamburg, Germany
Publishing & Scientific Integrity Advisor
Peter J. Goadsby King's College London, UK
David W. Dodick Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, USA
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  • Cephalalgia is a medical-neurological journal in the field of headache research, and is the official journal of the International Headache Society.

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Cephalalgia will be reviewed.

    Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    The Journal requires that studies on headache and cervical pain adhere to the terminology, diagnostic disorders, and criteria within the ICHD (Cephalalgia. 2018 Jan;38(1):1-211.) and studies on facial pain adhere to the terminology, diagnostic disordrs, and criteria within ICOP (Cephalalgia. 2020 Feb;40(2):129-221) .​

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this journal.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that Cephalalgia will consider submissions of papers that have been posted on preprint servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the Journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the Journal's author archiving policy.

    If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    If you have any questions about publishing with SAGE, please visit the SAGE Journal Solutions Portal

    Contact Cephalalgia - email:

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      2.7 Clinical trials
      2.8 Reporting guidelines
      2.9 Data
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 SAGE Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to Cephalalgia, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article Types

    Cephalalgia publishes original papers on all aspects of headache. The journal provides an international forum for original research papers, review articles and short communications. The Journal considers the following kinds of article for publication:

        Review Articles
        Original research papers
        Brief reports
        Clinical correspondence (case reports)
        Letters to the Editor

    Original research papers
    If you are submitting a basic science research manuscript you are required to include two to five bullet points clearly summarizing the highlights of your research. This bullet points will appear at the end of your manuscript following the conclusion and prior to the reference list. Choose one of the following headings based upon the type of manuscript for your bullet points:

    Clinical based

        Clinical implications
        Public health relevance


    Basic science

        Article highlights
        Key findings

    The below table gives typical word counts for submissions to Cephalalgia, however these are not set, fixed limits and the Editors can be flexible where necessary. Nevertheless, please do try to make your articles concise and make every effort to reduce the word count.  Occasionally it may be necessary to go over the suggested word counts to accommodate important information but please note that Editors may still request that overly lengthy manuscripts are reduced in word count by the Authors.

    Table 1. Overview of recommended maximums for manuscript submissions to Cephalalgia

    Article Type


    Main Text Word* limit










    Review Articles
    Narrative review
    Systematic review







    As necessary for the requirements of the article

     As necessary for the requirements of the article

    Original Research Papers




    As necessary for the requirements of the article

    As necessary for the requirements of the article

    Brief Reports


    1,250 -1,500




    Clinical Correspondence (Case Reports)






    Letter to the Editor






    * Excluding abstract and references.
    ** See section 9.3 for referencing styles

    1.2.1 Research manuscript preparation guidelines
    General aspects

    Title: Use titles that describe the main aspect of your study, stimulate interest, are easy to read and concise, and state the design of the study (i.e., randomized controlled trial, case-control study, cohort study etc.). Main findings or interpretation of the study should not be included in the title.

    Abbreviations: Do not use abbreviations unless absolutely necessary. Often abbreviations make it difficult for readers to follow a paper, particularly if they are not experts in your field; consider abbreviating long names of chemical substances, genetic polymorphisms and terms for therapeutic combinations. It is appropriate to use abbreviations that are largely known, such as DNA. If abbreviations are used in tables or figures to save space, please explain all abbreviations in the legend.

    Introduction: Briefly introduce the background and significance to concisely set up the context of the specific research question for readers.
    Remember that your audience and the readership are generally knowledgeable about the issues related to common headache disorders and these aspects do not need to be repeated. Please abstain from using platitudes such as "Migraine affects 14% of the population" and "migraine is a disabling disease and/or affects a high percentage of people" in the structured abstract and throughout the manuscript. Economy of words is important and comments should be essential and specific to the subject matter of the manuscript and need for the study. End the introduction with a clear statement of the study’s objectives or hypotheses.

    Methods: For studies involving humans, describe how participants were selected and enrolled, and the sites or setting from which they were recruited. Describe study procedures including any details of interventions (if applicable), measurement and classification of main exposure (if applicable) and outcomes, and other data collection techniques. Consider the use of a figure to show study processes. Report how many individuals were eligible, how many declined to participate and how many were lost to follow-up. For studies that have numerical data and use statistical inference, include a section that describe all details of the statistical analyses (how groups were compared, model building strategies, specific software(s) used, etc.). See also specific statistical reporting guidelines below.

    Results: Fully describe the sample and setting of the study (if applicable) and provide characteristics of your study population. Present the finding of the primary outcome first followed by the result of secondary outcomes, exploratory outcomes, and subgroup analyses. Consider presenting main results in tables or figures and avoid repeating the same numbers in text, tables, and figures.

    Discussion: We encourage authors to structure the discussion and cover the following aspects: Summary of the main findings (primary outcomes first followed by secondary outcomes), discussion on how the findings compare with previously published studies, a brief description on potential biological mechanisms (if applicable), clinical, scientific and/or public health implications, strengths and limitations, unanswered questions and suggestions for further targeted research (if applicable).

    Funding: For all studies, include a statement describing all and any funding sources and the role of each funding source for the study. If the study had no external funding source or if the funding source had no role in the study, state so explicitly.

    Ethics or Institutional Review Board Approval: Please clearly indicate that the study obtained appropriate approval (or a statement and explanation of why it was not required), including the name of the ethics committee(s) or institutional review board(s), the number/ID of the approval(s). For human studies, please also add a statement that participants gave informed consent before taking part.

    Study Protocol: If your study protocol is registered (, etc.), please provide the registration number (required for intervention studies). The trail registration number should appear in the manuscript following the abstract. We encourage the registration of observational study protocols.

    Specific reporting aspects:

    Reports of clinical trials should adhere to the tenets of the CONSORT statement (JAMA 2001; 285: 1987-1991). A flow chart MUST be provided describing the progress of patients through the trial.

    A checklist of CONSORT requirements MUST be completed and uploaded into the manuscript files system.  Alternatively, the forms may be sent to the Editorial Office by post or scanned copies of the hand-signed forms can be e-mailed.

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should adhere to the principles of the PRISMA statement (BMJ 2009; 339:b2535). The PRISMA flow diagram MUST be provided and the checklist MUST also be completed. Both forms MUST be completed and uploaded into the manuscript files system.  Alternatively, the forms may be sent to the Editorial Office by post or scanned copies of the hand-signed forms can be e-mailed.

    These SQUIRE guidelines provide a framework for reporting formal, planned studies designed to assess the nature and effectiveness of interventions to improve the quality and safety of care. The checklists and guidelines are available here. Please include a completed SQUIRE checklist at manuscript submission.

    The STROBE Statement is referred to in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The STOBE checklist MUST be completed and uploaded into the manuscript files system.  Alternatively, the forms may be sent to the Editorial Office by post or scanned copies of the hand-signed forms can be e-mailed.

    Reporting checklists: Completed applicable checklists and appropriate documentation (flow diagram etc.) should be uploaded with your submission.

    ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments)

    CARE (for preparing reporting case reports that to provide more complete and transparent reporting for brief reports manuscripts. Consider the CARE manuscript template available on their site)

    CONSORT Statement (for reporting of randomized controlled trials: please use the appropriate extension to the CONSORT statement, including the extension for writing abstracts)

    MOOSE (for reporting of meta-analyses of observational studies). Cephalalgia requires a copy of this completed checklist for meta-analyses of observational studies.  Upload the document along with your manuscript submission.  Download the MOOSE checklist.

    PRISMA (for reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials).

    SQUIRE (for reporting improvements in quality and safety of care)

    STARD (for reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies)

    STREGA (for reporting of gene-disease association studies) STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association studies – an extension of the STROBE statement

    STROBE (for reporting of observational studies in epidemiology) Checklist for cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies.

    1.2.2 Methodological/Statistical Guidelines

    Percentages: Report percentages to maximal of one decimal place (i.e., XX.X%). In studies with <300 participants it is recommended to show full numbers (i.e., XX%).

     P values: In the Methods section, please indicate whether you have calculated two- or one-tailed P values and which cut-off you have set for statistical significance. Please report all P values. Showing “n.s.” for not significant is not acceptable. For P values between 0.001 and 0.10, please report the value with three decimal places. For P values greater than 0.10, please report P values with two decimal places. For P values less than 0.001, report as “P<0.001.” Exceptions are genome-wide association studies. Do not only show P values for group differences but show the appropriate effect measure (i.e., relative risk, absolute risk, difference of means etc.).

    Relative risk estimates:  Show all relative risk estimates with appropriate (i.e., 95%) confidence intervals. Do not show more than two decimal places. In smaller studies, there is often only power to show one decimal place.

    The term relative risk is often used as a generic term for odds ratios, hazard ratios, or rate ratios. We encourage using the precise term depending on the model used to calculate the relative risk measure (i.e., odds ratio for logistic regression models, hazard ratio for Cox proportional hazard models). If you use the term “relative risk” as a generic term, please indicate in the Methods section what relative risk stands for (i.e., we used a logistic regression model to calculate odds ratios as a measure of the relative risk).

    Absolute event rate: Please indicate in the Table(s) or text how many people had the outcome event(s) of interest according to the exposure or intervention status. In other words, do not show just the relative risk estimate or proportions without showing how many people went into the calculation.

    Absolute risks: Please consider showing absolute risk (i.e., risk difference, attributable risk, etc.) in addition to showing relative risk estimates. Often relative risk are large when there is only a small absolute effect (i.e., in setting were either the exposure or the outcome are rare), which can lead to over interpretation of findings. On the other hand, please keep in mind that absolute effects assume causality in a specific setting when interpreting absolute effect estimates. So caution should be used before making strong inference, in particular from observational research (i.e., XX% of the outcome events are explained by the exposure or XX% of the outcome can be avoided when the exposure is eliminated).

    Trend: use the word trend only when you have tested a trend across a specific variable (i.e., dose response) and report an appropriate P value for trend.

    Model building:  We discourage the use of “stepwise” or automated selection procedure methods (i.e., such as forward or backward selection procedures) to build multivariable models. Exceptions are studies aiming to build prediction or prognostic models or studies that are set up to generate hypotheses for subsequent research (i.e., hypothesis generating studies, data mining, etc.). Regardless of the approach, the authors should clearly state in the Methods section how a multivariable model was built.

    Subgroup analyses: It is encouraged to limit the number of subgroup (or stratified) analyses. Subgroup analyses should be pre-specified and based on biological or clinical plausibility. P values of appropriate test for interaction should be provided. The inclusion of any not pre-specified subgroup or stratified analyses must be accompanied by a correction for multiple comparisons (e.g. Bonferroni).

    Missing data: Please report the amount of missing data and how you dealt with this.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Cephalalgia operates a conventional single-blind reviewing policy in which the reviewer's name is always concealed from the submitting author.

    Generally, each manuscript is reviewed by at least two referees. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, and an editorial decision is generally reached within 5-6 weeks of submission.

    Obligate external peer-review is not mandatory. After review by the Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editor, a decision is made whether to send the manuscript for external peer review.

    In addition, case reports (Clinical Correspondance) may be reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editor without external peer review or with only 1 external peer reviewer.

    Please note that in any papers where the Editor-in-chief is an author the processing of the manuscript is handled by an Associate Editor and the Editor-in-chief is totally blinded from the procedure and will never have access to the peer reviewer details.

    2.1.1 Fast-track review

    Cephalalgia provides a fast-track review option whereby two Associate Editors may review a manuscript within 72 hours and on-line publication occurs within 4 weeks of acceptance.

    The cost of such rapid review is $900 USD. This payment is to cover the time of the Associate Editors. Please note that this payment is strictly to facilitate the rapid review process and does not in any way guarantee acceptance or publication of your article.

    If you wish to make use of this facility please choose the ‘fast track review’ option in the article type dropdown menu when submitting your article. If you choose the ‘fast-track’ review option you are agreeing to pay the $900.00 USD for this service.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    • Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    • Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    • Approved the version to be published,
    • Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

     Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    A "Third Party Submitter" is defined as a person who takes on an administrative role, has not had a part in the research or writing of the article, and is not named as an author on the article. As a Third Party submitter you should:

    1. Be the one individual who takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process, and typically ensures that all the journal's administrative requirements, such as providing details of authorship, ethics committee approval, clinical trial registration documentation, and gathering conflict of interest forms and statements, are properly completed, although these duties may be delegated to one or more co-authors.

    However, as the Third Party Submitter, you are not entitled to:

    2. Be the person who signs the publishing agreement on behalf of all of the authors and whose contact details are included on the article.

    Only a named author is permitted to complete the actions in paragraph 2 above. As a legally binding document, the Contributor Agreement form that requires signature after acceptance must be signed by a named author on the article. Under no circumstances should this be signed by a Third Party Submitter.

    The corresponding author should be available after publication to respond to critiques of the work and cooperate with any requests from the journal for data or additional information should questions about the paper arise after publication.​

    How to submit on behalf of a corresponding author 

    The Third Party submitter should create their own account via the submission site and under no circumstances should they login using one of the named author's account details.

    When submitting via the person Third Party Submitter account:

    The editorial office will carry out the necessary step within the submission system to ensure the Third Party submitter is not included as an author in the article. As the Third Party Submitter, you only need to declare yourself as such.

    Any editorial decisions will be sent to the authors. In the case of a resubmit or revision decision, the original Third Party Submitter will be assigned to the paper again to allow them to take action.

    Please contact the Editorial Office if you have any questions regarding this process.

    Disclosing a Third Party Submitter 


    Authors/Third Party Submitters should disclose the following in their cover letter and in the Acknowledgments:

    • The role of the Submitting Third Party and a statement that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party. e.g.  "I confirm that I have received authorization from all listed authors to submit this manuscript on their behalf"
    • Any funding for such editorial assistance must also be declared. 
    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual's name, company and level of input

     Medical Writers 

    Medical writers may be used to write Methods and Results sections but only the first/last author should write the  Introduction and Discussion sections of an article. This should be declared in the acknowledgment section, i.e. the  name of the medical writer and who of the authors wrote the introduction and discussion.

    It should be declared in the covering letter whether a Medical Writer has been used.

    2.4 Funding

    Cephalalgia requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Cephalalgia to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    2.7 Clinical trials

    Cephalalgia conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Cephalalgia and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Cephalalgia offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. Word templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point. The font color is black, please do not use colored font. SI units should be used throughout the text.

    Only electronic files conforming to the journal's guidelines will be accepted. Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are as noted above. It is important that all figures/images and tables are uploaded as separate files and are not embedded into the main text file. Please note that Cephalalgia does not have a file category called "box".  The file categories are main body, tables, figures, supporting documents.  Please also refer to additional guidelines on submitting artwork and supporting files below.

    4.1.2 Title page

    The first page(s) of your manuscript no matter the submission category all manuscripts are required to include a title page with the the following information:

    1. Title,
    2. All author names and affiliations,
    3. Corresponding author contact details,
    4. Structured abstract (if applicable to manuscript type),
    5. Trial Registration (if applicable to manuscript type),
    6. Key words.

    4.1.3 Structuring your abstract

    Given that Cephalalgia is a journal devoted to headache and facial pain, readers are familiar with these diseases. Generally, please avoid platitudes such as "migraine is a disabling disease and/or affects a high percentage of people" in the structured abstract and throughout the manuscript. The journal author guidelines require a structured abstract using 3 or 4 paragraphs without cite of references or abbreviations. Word count is not more than 250 words depending upon the manuscript category.

    The manuscript category Viewpoint/Perspective is the only category type that allows for an unstructured abstract of approximately 200 words.  All other manuscripts types that require an abstract the authors must structure the abstract. The structured abstract contains headings that are appropriate for the manuscript type.

    Any papers received without a structured abstract will be returned to the corresponding author.

    4.1.4 Clinical relevance bullet points

    In order to ensure that your research is of interest to as wide an audience as possible it is important that you provide two to five bullet points summarizing your manuscript. Bullet points are fragment sentences and not paragraphs.

    If your article is clinically based use bullet points with either one of these headings: Clinical Implications or Public Health Relevance. The bullet point box is created by the publisher once the manuscript is accepted and sent to Production. Use bullet points with headings such as Article Highlights or Key Findings for research that is basic science based.

    Please include the manuscript bullet points in the main body of the manuscript after the conclusion and prior to the reference list. The authors are required to provide the same bullet points during Step 5 of the manuscript submission process.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines. 

    Please note that for Cephalalgia the main body of your article should not contain tables or figures.

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online and in the print issue. There is no charge for reproducing figures in colour in the printed version.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files

    In some cases, the Editor of the journal may request, on acceptance, that figures/tables are moved to supplementary files if a large number of files appear in the manuscript. In these cases, we ask that the author supplies the items as individual files along with a title and description for all supplementary items.
    These supplementary files will not appear in the print version of the journal but will be available as additional files in the online version of the journal.
     A full guide on supplementary material can be found here.

    4.4 Reference style

    Cephalalgia operates a SAGE Vancouver reference style. Click here to review the guidelines on SAGE Vancouver to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the SAGE Vancouver EndNote output file.

    Please include only one reference list. The source for any table and/or figures should be included in the main reference list and not as separate references. 

    All tables and figures should be numbered consecutively and cited in the text as Table 1, Table 2 etc. or Figure 1, Figure 2 etc. (Table and Figure should be spelled out in full, not abbreviated).

    Examples: figures/tables should be referenced in the text as follows:
    Figure 1, or Figures 1 and 2, or Figures 2 to 4, or Figure 1(a) and (b), or Figure 2(a) to (c).
    Table 1, or Table 2 and 2, or Table 2 t o4, or Table 1(a) and (b), or Table 2(a) to(c).
    Where the figure citation is not part of the sentence it should be placed in parentheses.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure you carefully read and adhere to all the guidelines and instructions to authors provided below. Manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned to your Author Center.

    Specifically, please upload the elements of the manuscripts as single file(s) and in the correct format using the file extension guide herein below:

    Document Files: .docx, .xlsx, .pptx, .doc; .htm; .ppt; .pdf; .rtf; .tex; .txt; .wpd; xls.

    Image Files: . ai (PDF types only. Post-script types not supported); .cgm; .dcx; .dib; .dicom; .epdf; .epi; .eps, eps2; .espf; .epsi; .fig; .fits; .fpx; .gif; .hpgl; .jpg; .jpeg; .ico; .mng; .pbm; .pcd; .pcds; .pcx; .pgm; .ppm; .png; .pnm; .ps, .ps2; .sun; .tga; .tif; .vicar; .vid; .viff; .xbm; .xpm; .xwd.

    Follow these recommendations to ensure that your files will properly convert to HTML and PDF:


    • File names do not include special characters, i.e. no ASCII;
    • File names are less than 25 characters long;
    • File names follow a simple format, i.e. "mymanuscript.doc".


    • Do not embed fonts;
    • Remove macros;
    • Remove hyperlinks from the main body;
    • Remove Field Codes (placeholders in Microsoft Word for data that might change in a document);
    • Verify your spreadsheet files only have single tab;
    • Reminder, use short file names without symbols.


    • Remove thumbnails from image files;
    • Verify your images are in single, flattened layer (e.g. no multi-pages TIFs);
    • Images must arrive as 300 dpi.


    .mp4, .mov

    To ensure an expedient review of all manuscripts, and to assist the Editor and Associate Editors in allocating the most appropriate and knowledgeable reviewers for your manuscript, please list five key references from your reference list, along with the senior author’s email address and contact information from each of these five references. The key references are reported in the database only (Step 4), please do not include the key references within the main body of the manuscripts.

    Cephalalgia is hosted on SAGE track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne© Manuscripts. Please read the Manuscript Submission guidelines below, and then simply visit to login and submit your article online.


    Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. Please ensure the author account data is accurate before proceeding to the manuscript submission. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    Online Submission

    Submissions should be made by logging in and selecting the Author Centre and the ‘Click here to Submit a New Manuscript’ option. Follow the instructions on each page, clicking the ‘Next’ button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen. If at any stage you have any questions or require the user guide, please use the ‘Get Help Now’ button at the top right of every screen. Further help is available through ScholarOne® Manuscript CentralTM customer support at +1 434 817 2040 x 167.

    To upload your files, click on the ‘Browse’ button and locate the file on your computer. Select the designation of each file (i.e. main document, table, figure, or supporting document) in the drop down selection next to the browse button. When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the ‘Upload Files’ button. Review your submission (in both PDF and HTML formats) and then click the Submit button.

    You may suspend a submission at any point before clicking the Submit button and save it to submit later. After submission, you will receive a confirmation e-mail. You can also log back into your author centre at any time to check the status of your manuscript.

    Please ensure that you submit editable document files only. The main text should be in Microsoft Word or RTF, the tables as separate Word files (an image of a table placed in a Word document is not editable), and the figures as separate files using the file extensions note above. Please ensure that your document does not include line numbers; the Cephalalgia SAGE track system will generate them for you, and then automatically convert your manuscript to PDF for peer review. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor’s decision and requests for revisions, will be by email.

    All papers must be submitted via the online system. If you would like to discuss your paper prior to submission, please refer to the contact details below.

    Submitting a Revision 
    Authors submitting revised manuscripts should follow the submission instructions available in the Author Centre and submit through the SAGE track system. To create a revision, go to the ‘Manuscripts with Decisions’ option in your Author Dashboard and select ‘create a revision in the ‘Action’ column.  The main body of the revised manuscript should arrive in tracked changes.  Enter the Response to Reviewers in the database.  The authors should upload a separate file that is labeled Response to Reviewers as a supporting document.  It is recommended the authors upload a clean version with all tracked changes accepted as a supporting document file.  Should the revised manuscript include a change in authorship please include an Author change form to ensure that all authors are in agreement for the change in authorship.

    All manuscripts must be submitted via the online system.

    If you would like to discuss your manuscript prior to submission, please refer to the contact details below.

    Wendy Krank 
    Managing Editor 
    Cephalalgia Editorial Office

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities ensuring that their work is recognised.

    We encourage all authors to add their ORCIDs to their SAGE Track accounts and include their ORCIDs as part of the submission process. If you don’t already have one you can create one here.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Cephalalgia editorial office as follows:

    Wendy Krank
    Managing Editor
    Cephalalgia Editorial Office

    Individual Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)

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