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Shaping the Developing World
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Shaping the Developing World
The West, the South, and the Natural World

First Edition


August 2013 | 424 pages | CQ Press
Why are some countries rich and others poor?

Shaping the Developing World explores the different theories that attempt to answer this thorny question. Interdisciplinary in his scope, Andy Baker adeptly uses a threefold framework of the West, the South, and the Natural World to categorize and analyze the factors that cause underdevelopment—from the consequences of colonialism, deficient domestic institutions, and gender inequality to the effects of globalization, geography, and environmental degradation. Students learn to think like social scientists while coming to understand the full breadth of influences on a nation’s political, economic, and social development.

Country case studies at the end of each chapter offer an ideal testing ground for the threefold framework, as they apply empirical data to the various explanations of underdevelopment. Critical thinking questions then encourage students to weigh the different theoretical arguments. A series of well-designed features develop students’ understanding of indicators of development concepts and highlight various kinds of aid organizations and opportunities for development work in the field. Shaping the Developing World presents high-quality academic analysis and the latest scholarship in a format that’s engaging, informative, and above all, accessible.

 
PART I: INTRODUCTION
 
1. Underdevelopment and Diversity in the Global South
Defining the Developing World

 
Naming the Developing World

 
Delineating the Developing World

 
Economic, Social, and Political Characteristics

 
Economic Characteristics

 
Social Characteristics

 
Political Characteristics

 
A Brief History of Economic Development

 
The Pre-Industrial Eras

 
The Industrial Revolution

 
Modern Economic Growth in the Developing World

 
Goals and Organization: Who or What Causes Global Poverty?

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: A Framework

 
Organization of the Book

 
Case Study: Why Is the Democratic Republic of Congo the Poorest Country on Earth?

 
The South: Kleptocracy and Cultural Fragmentation

 
The West: Stolen Aid, Colonial Abuses, and Slavery

 
The Natural World: Geography and the Resource Curse

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
2. Human Development and Underdevelopment
Defining Human Development

 
The Human Development Approach

 
The Complex Relationship between Economic and Human Development

 
Health Snapshot: Description and Causes of the Developing World’s Shortcomings

 
Key Health Indicators: Life Expectancy and Child Mortality

 
The Immediate Cause of Poor Health Outcomes

 
Health Trends: Tracking Improvements in LDCs through Time

 
Longer Lives

 
Causes of Convergence: The Declining Cost of Good Health

 
Education Snapshot: The Nature and Causes of the Developing World’s Deficit

 
Key Education Indicators: Attainment and Achievement

 
The Immediate Causes of Poor Educational Outcomes

 
Education Trends: Tracking Improvements in LDCs through Time

 
Higher Enrollments and Better Quality

 
Causes of Convergence: Better Government and Parental Commitment

 
Case Study: What Are India’s Failures and Successes in Human Development?

 
Health and Education Challenges

 
Health and Education Successes

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
3. The Benefits and Costs of Economic Development
The Cultural Costs of Development

 
The Cost: The Westernization and Homogenization of Cultures

 
The Cost: Deteriorations in Social Connectedness and Personal Character

 
The Response: Prosperity as a Universal Desire

 
The Response: Minimal or Beneficial Cultural Change

 
The Equity Costs of Development

 
The Cost: Deepening Global Inequality

 
The Cost: Deepening Domestic Inequalities

 
The Response: The Complicated Relationship between Development and Inequality

 
The Environmental Costs of Development

 
The Cost: Environmental Degradation

 
The Response: The Benefits of Development for the Environment

 
The Psychological Costs of Development

 
The Cost: Insecurity, Alienation, and Unhappiness

 
The Response: Revisiting the Ethics and Evidence on Happiness

 
Case Study: Has Economic Growth Brought Happiness to China?

 
The Gains

 
The Costs

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
PART II: THE WEST: INTERNATIONAL CONTEXTS
 
4. Slavery and Colonialism
The Atlantic Slave Trade

 
The Triangular Trade

 
Features of the Trade in Africa

 
Features of the Trade in Latin America

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Long-Term Damage of Slavery

 
Consequences for Africa

 
Consequences for Latin America and the Caribbean

 
Critique: Questioning the Magnitude of Slavery’s Effects

 
Western Colonialism

 
The Importance of the Western Colonial Era for the Contemporary South

 
A Brief History of the Colonial Era

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Western Colonialism’s Consequences

 
The Colonial Drain

 
Colonialism’s Institutional Legacy

 
Colonialism’s Cultural Legacy

 
Critique of Colonial Legacy Arguments

 
Case Study: Do Slavery and Colonialism Explain Nigeria’s Development Failure?

 
The West: Slavery and Colonialism’s Consequences

 
The South: Domestic Problems in Independent Nigeria

 
The Natural World: The Burden of Geography and the Paradox of Oil Wealth

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
5. Globalization and Neocolonialism
From the First Global Century to Import Substitution

 
The First Global Century

 
The ISI Phase

 
Export Promotion

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Dependency and Other Early Theories of Global Exploitation

 
Latin American Structuralism

 
Dependency Theory

 
World Systems Theory

 
Falling Behind in the First Global Century

 
Critiques of Structuralism, Dependency Theory, and WST

 
Reintegrating the Globe

 
Trade Liberalization

 
Capital Market Liberalization

 
Changing Migration Flows

 
Remaining Barriers

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Newer Concerns about Globalization

 
Deindustrialization

 
Sweatshops and the Race to the Bottom

 
Volatile Capital Flows

 
Foreign Debt

 
Brain Drain

 
Critique: Defending Globalization

 
The Benefits of Free Trade

 
Labor Exploitation or Enrichment?

 
The Nature of Foreign Debt

 
Brain Gain

 
Case Study: Is Neocolonialism Why Brazil Is Always the “Country of the Future”?

 
The West: Failures of Openness

 
The South: Shortcomings of Domestic Institutions

 
The Natural World: The Illusion of Abundance

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
6. Foreign Aid and the Bretton Woods Institutions
Foreign Aid

 
Understanding Key Concepts and Players in the Aid Regime

 
A Brief History of Foreign Aid

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Case for Aid Skepticism

 
Donor Motives

 
Donor Paternalism and Lack of Accountability

 
Donor Fragmentation and Aid Volatility

 
Recipient Absorptive Capacity and Governance

 
Recipient Economic Problems

 
Defending Foreign Aid and Its Record

 
Theoretical Defenses

 
Foreign Aid’s Many Successes

 
The Aid Trickle

 
Learning from Past Mistakes

 
The Bretton Woods Institutions: The IMF and World Bank

 
A Brief History of the IMF and World Bank

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Imposing Market Fundamentalism

 
Foisting Capitalism on the Developing World

 
Other Criticisms

 
Critique: Defending the Bretton Woods Institutions

 
Loans and Conditionalities as a Choice

 
The Ethics of Conditionalities

 
The Case for Market Policies

 
Case Study: Has Foreign Aid Made Pakistan Poorer?

 
The West: The Failures of Aid and the IMF

 
The South: The Worst of Continuity and Change

 
The Natural World: The Paradox of Flooding amidst Dryness

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
PART III: THE SOUTH: DOMESTIC FACTORS
 
7. Culture and Identity
Understanding Culture and Social Identity

 
Social Identity

 
Other Cultural Traits

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Culturalist School

 
Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic

 
Modernization Theory

 
Social Capital and Trust

 
Religion and Natural Culture

 
Critique of Culturalist Claims

 
Culture as Consequence, Not Cause

 
Mischaracterizing Culture in LDCs

 
Mixed Evidence

 
Cultural Relativism

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Costs of Cultural Diversity

 
Underprovision of Public Goods and Fragmented Markets

 
Poor Governance and Conflict

 
Stereotype Threat

 
Critique: Diversity as Consequence, Not Cause

 
Case Study: Are Iraqis Poor Because of Islam and Its Ethnic Cleavages?

 
The South: Islam and Sectarian Divisions

 
The West: The British Mandate and War with the United States

 
The Natural World: Oil and Sand

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
8. States, Markets, and Development Models
State-Led Development

 
State-Led Development in Thought

 
State-Led Development in Practice

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Failures of the State-Led Model

 
Critique: Successes of State-Led Development

 
Socialism

 
Marxist Thought

 
Socialism in Practice

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Failures of Socialism

 
Critique: Socialism’s Successes

 
The Market-Oriented Strategy

 
Neoclassical Economic Thought

 
The Market-Oriented Strategy in Practice

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Shortcomings of the Market-Oriented Strategy

 
Disappointing Results

 
State Capitalism

 
Critique: Successes of the Washington Consensus

 
Success Stories

 
Debating State Capitalism

 
Case Study: Did India’s Postcolonial Development Model Delay Its Economic Rise?

 
The South: India’s State-Led Development Model

 
The West: Exploiting the “Jewel in the British Crown”

 
The Natural World: Topography and Transport Costs

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
9. Economic Institutions and Informality
Property Markets and Informal Ownership

 
Urban Slums and Rural Land

 
Causes of Property Informality

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Informal Property Markets

 
New Institutional Economics and Property Rights

 
Dead Capital

 
Critique: Is Formality Worth It?

 
Informal Work, Firms, and Finance

 
Labor and Business Informality

 
Financial Services

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Challenges of Informal Firms and Finance

 
The Drawbacks of Informal Work

 
Shortcomings of Informal Finance

 
Critique: Formalization as a False Solution

 
Case Study: Does Informality Explain Peru’s Delayed Development?

 
The South: Informal Economic Activity

 
The West: Spanish Colonialism and British Neocolonialism

 
The Natural World: Pizarro Wins the Lottery

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
10. Political Institutions and Governance
Political Regimes

 
Democracy

 
Authoritarianism

 
Hybrid Regimes

 
Political Instability and Regime Change

 
The Relationship between Political Regimes and Prosperity

 
Democracy’s Third Wave

 
The Judiciary and the Bureaucracy

 
Rule of Law

 
Corruption

 
State Capacity

 
Judicial and Bureaucratic Quality around the World

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Bad Political Institutions

 
Extractive Institutions

 
Inclusive Institutions as the Solution

 
Critique of NIE

 
Economic Development First

 
The Authoritarian Advantage

 
Mixed Evidence

 
Case Study: Does China’s Authoritarianism Explain Why It Is Poorer Than the West?

 
The South: Serial Authoritarianism

 
The West: A Century of Humiliation

 
The Natural World: Inhospitable Terrain

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
11. Violence and State Failure
Political and Criminal Violence

 
Political Violence

 
Criminal Violence

 
State Failure

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Costs of Violence and State Failure

 
The Costs of Armed Conflict

 
The Price of Criminal Violence

 
Critique: Reconsidering the Costs of Violence

 
Case Study: Is Somalia Poor because of Civil War?

 
The South: Civil War in the World’s Least Governed State

 
The West: The Legacy of Foreign Intervention

 
The Natural World: Climate and Nomadism

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
12. Gender Inequality
Female Empowerment

 
The Gender Earnings Gap

 
The Gender Gap in Education

 
The Gender Gap in Political Empowerment

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Disempowered Women and Girls

 
Critiques of the Instrumentalist View

 
Female Health, Physical Security, and Fertility

 
Excess Female Mortality and Missing Women

 
Gender-Based Violence

 
Reproduction and Fertility

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: High Fertility

 
Critique: Doubting the Costs of High Fertility

 
Case: Is Afghanistan’s Treatment of Women the Cause of Its Poverty?

 
The South: Mistreatment of Women and Girls

 
The West: Legacy of a Global Pawn

 
The Natural World: Dry, Mountainous, and Landlocked

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 
 
PART IV: THE NATURAL WORLD: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
 
13. Geography and Economic Prosperity
Geographic Commonalities of the Developing World

 
The Tropics

 
Other Commonalities

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Physical Geography and Climate

 
The Tropical Disadvantage

 
Guns, Germs, and Steel

 
Natural Barriers to Economic Exchange

 
Critique of Geographical Determinism

 
Critique of Jeffrey Sachs

 
Critique of Jared Diamond

 
Overcoming Distance

 
The Resource Curse

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: Natural Resources

 
Dutch Disease and a Lack of Industry

 
Effects on Politics

 
Critique: A Resource Blessing?

 
Case Study: Is Geography Destiny in Mexico?

 
The Natural World: Mexico’s Geographical Disadvantages

 
The West: Colonial and Postcolonial Exploitation

 
The South: Instability and Autocracy

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Reading

 
Web Resources

 
 
14. Environmental Change and Development
Communal Environmental Problems

 
Degradation of Natural Capital

 
Why Community Environmental Problems Are Worse in LDCs

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: A Malthusian Trap

 
Critique: Recent History versus Neo-Malthusianism

 
Climate Change and Development

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Economic Burden of Climate Change

 
Causes of Underdevelopment: The Economic Burden of Climate Change

 
Case Study: Will Malthusian Traps End Indonesia’s Rise?

 
The Natural World: Indonesia’s Malthusian Crisis?

 
The South: Poor Government and Female Disempowerment

 
The West: Pathologies of Globalization

 
Thinking Critically about Development

 
Key Terms

 
Suggested Readings

 
Web Resources

 

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site
Password-protected INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES you’ll actually use!
Save time and ease class preparation with the additional guidance and tools, including:

  • A comprehensive test bank provides more than 700 multiple-choice, fill-in-the blank, and short- and long-essay questions, as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding. The test bank is available in Word and fully loaded in Respondus, a flexible and easy-to-use test-generation software that allows instructors to build, customize, and even integrate exams into course management systems.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course.
  • A set of all the graphics from the text, including all of the maps, tables, and figures, in PowerPoint, .pdf, and .jpg formats for class presentations.

Excellent book which is useful to students and teachers. Very good internet guidance also

Professor DONNA PANKHURST
Department of Peace Studies, Bradford University
April 13, 2015

This was excellent when I used it last year

Professor DONNA PANKHURST
Department of Peace Studies, Bradford University
January 16, 2015
Key features
KEY FEATURES:
  • Chapter-opening vignettes paint scenarios that put a human face on underdevelopment and draw students into chapter material.
  • Country case studies at the end of chapters examine underdevelopment through the lens of the threefold framework while critical thinking questions encourage students to assess scholarly explanations and draw their own conclusions.
  • Understanding Indicators boxes explore how social scientists go about measuring concepts like prosperity, ethnic fragmentation, and gender equality, shining a light on just how complex data collection and analysis can be. 
  • Development in the Field boxes focus on different types of aid agencies and their work, such as microfinance institutions and democracy development efforts, so students see avenues for their activism or professional aspirations. 
  • Bolded key terms emphasize important concepts, while a Key Concepts list at the end of chapters helps with study and review.
  • Suggested Readings and Web Resources point students to additional material for additional learning.
  • A glossary defines key terms and concepts.

Preview this book

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 2


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