You are here

Sage online ordering services will be unavailable due to system maintenance on May 17th from 6:00 pm Pacific / 9:00 pm Eastern time to 12:00 am Pacific / 3:00 am (May 18th) Eastern time. Thank you for your patience and we apologize for the inconvenience.
Quantum Economics and Finance

Quantum Economics and Finance


eISSN: 29767040 | ISSN: 29767032 Frequency: Bi-annually

Sage is proud to publish Quantum Economics and Finance (QEF) in collaboration with the Centre for Quantum Social and Cognitive Science (CQSCS). QEF is a single-blind peer-reviewed journal and aims to become the premier research forum for presenting and debating results from the interface between quantum methods and economics. The journal will cover a variety of areas of interest such as

  • quantum computational/algorithmic aspects in finance
  • applications of the quantum formalism to derivative pricing and financial economics
  • economic decision making

The journal will publish original research from both academia and practice. Work drawing on other branches of quantum social science, such as quantum cognition or quantum game theory, will be welcome, as will papers reporting on how techniques from quantum computing are changing the way we think about and model the financial system.

Quantum Economics and Finance is the first journal dedicated to the application of ideas from quantum probability to modelling the financial system. The focus is on quantum-native models which treat the economy as a quantum system in its own right, with its own version of quantum properties such as uncertainty, superposition, interference, and entanglement.

QEF is targeted at scholars and practitioners who are working with or wish to explore quantum approaches to economics and finance. Typical papers published recently in this field include ones discussing models of economic decision-making which account for interference between opposing concepts or beliefs; models of group dynamics or interaction which include the effect of entanglement between agents; models of stock markets which treat price as the measurement of a complex wave function; or models which use quantum probability to price financial options.

The main aim of the journal is not to explore quantum properties for their own sake, or attempt to link the economy with the subatomic world, but to present techniques which out-perform existing approaches at both explaining and predicting a range of economic phenomena. QEF will feature theoretical research, analysis of empirical results, and papers aimed at bringing quantum ideas into practice. The scope includes economic applications from related areas such as quantum cognition, quantum decision theory, quantum game theory, and quantum artificial intelligence. The journal will also welcome studies that involve other generalized versions of probability.

Article types will range from research articles and review papers to opinion pieces and commentaries. Book reviews will typically be solicited by the editors. The journal will also feature special issues on particular themes, and selected refereed conference proceedings. The emphasis throughout will be on providing actionable research that helps drive the adoption of quantum mathematics and quantum computing in economics and finance.

The field is interdisciplinary in nature, and the audience includes researchers and practitioners working in disciplines such as quantitative finance, quantum computing, decision theory, and economics. Papers should therefore be aimed at readers with a general science background, rather than specialists in particular fields.

Editors-in-Chief
David Orrell Systems Forecasting, Canada
Emmanuel Haven Memorial University, Faculty of Business Administration, Canada
Managing Editor
Raymond Hawkins University of Arizona, Wyant College of Optical Sciences, USA
Advisory Board
Itzhak Gilboa H.E.C Paris, Department of Economics and Decision Making, France
Peter Hammond University of Warwick & Stanford University, Department of Economics, UK & USA
Massimo Marinacci Bocconi University, Decision Sciences, Italy
Asghar Qadir Government College University, Abdus Salam School of Mathematical Sciences, Pakistan
Paul Wilmott CQF Institute, UK
Editorial Board - Quantum Computational/Algorithmic Aspects
Peter Bruza Queensland University of Technology, School of Information Systems, Australia
Esperanza Cuenca-Gomez Multiverse Computing, Spain
Trung Duong Memorial University, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Canada
Noelle Ibrahim IBM, Toronto, Canada
Antoine Jacquier Imperial College, Department of Mathematics, UK
Catarina Pinto Moreira National Science Agency, CSIRO - Data61 Unit, Australia
Dominic Widdows IonQ, USA
Editorial Board - Quantum Formalism in Financial Derivative Pricing/Other Areas
Belal Baaquie Helixtap Technologies, Singapore
Mauricio Contreras G. UMCE, Department of Physics, Chile
Boualem Djehiche Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Sweden
Sergio Focardi Economics and Complexity, Italy
Matheus Grasselli McMaster University, Department of Mathematics, Canada
Antoine Jacquier Imperial College, Department of Mathematics, UK
Polina Khrennikova Universiteit Twente, Faculty of Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences, Financial Engineering, The Netherlands
Editorial Board - Quantum Formalism in Economics/Other Areas
Diederik Aerts Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Center Leo Apostel for Transdisciplinary Research, Belgium
Fabio Bagarello University of Palermo, Department of Engineering, Italy
Jerome Busemeyer Indiana University Bloomington, Psychological and Brain Sciences, USA
Graciela Chichilnisky Columbia University & Stanford University, Department of Economics and SIEPR, USA
Acacio de Barros San Francisco State University, Liberal Studies Program, USA
Sergio Focardi Economics and Complexity, Italy
Matheus Grasselli McMaster University, Department of Mathematics, Canada
Andrei Khrennikov Linnaeus University, Department of Mathematics, Sweden
Arkady Plotnitsky Purdue University, Literature, Theory and Cultural Studies Program, USA
Emmanuel Pothos City University London, Department of Psychology, UK
Sandro Sozzo University of Udine, Department of Humanities, Italy
Social Media Editor
Marisa Aimee Dusseault University of Alberta, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Canada

Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Quantum Economics and Finance

This Journal follows the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/qef to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

Sage disseminates high-quality research and engages in scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Quantum Economics and Finance will be reviewed.

There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that:

  • you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you,

  • that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication

Please note that Quantum Economics and Finance will consider submissions of papers that have been posted on preprint servers. Please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system.

Please note that authors should not post an updated version of their paper to a preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the Journal. If your paper is accepted, you will need to contact the preprint server to ensure the final published article link is attached to your preprint. Learn more about our preprint policy here.

If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal.

1. What do we publish?

1.1 Aims & Scope

Before submitting your manuscript to Quantum Economics and Finance, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope: Quantum Economics and Finance is the first journal dedicated to the application of ideas from quantum probability to modelling the financial system. The focus is on quantum-native models which treat the economy as a quantum system in its own right, with its own version of quantum properties such as uncertainty, superposition, interference, and entanglement.

QEF is targeted at scholars and practitioners who are working with or wish to explore quantum approaches to economics and finance. Typical papers published recently in this field include ones discussing models of economic decision-making which account for interference between opposing concepts or beliefs; models of group dynamics or interaction which include the effect of entanglement between agents; models of stock markets which treat price as the measurement of a complex wave function; or models which use quantum probability to price financial options.

The main aim of the journal is not to explore quantum properties for their own sake, or attempt to link the economy with the subatomic world, but to present techniques which out-perform existing approaches at both explaining and predicting a range of economic phenomena. QEF will feature theoretical research, analysis of empirical results, and papers aimed at bringing quantum ideas into practice. The scope includes economic applications from related areas such as quantum cognition, quantum decision theory, quantum game theory, and quantum artificial intelligence. The journal will also welcome studies that involve other generalized versions of probability.

Article types will range from research articles and review papers to opinion pieces and commentaries. Book reviews will typically be solicited by the editors. The journal will also feature special issues on particular themes, and selected refereed conference proceedings. The emphasis throughout will be on providing actionable research that helps drive the adoption of quantum mathematics and quantum computing in economics and finance.

The field is interdisciplinary in nature, and the audience includes researchers and practitioners working in disciplines such as quantitative finance, quantum computing, decision theory, and economics. Papers should therefore be aimed at readers with a general science background, rather than specialists in particular fields.

1.2 Article types

Research Articles (no word count): manuscripts covering novel research, which include theory as well as computational and empirical/experimental reports.

Appendices containing details critical to replicating the experiment or model can be included at the end of the main paper. Further supplemental materials will be published online only.

Review Articles, Opinion Pieces, Commentaries (no word count): a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of the literature, which should provide an objective view on the topic and suggest future directions for research. For opinion pieces and commentaries, new theoretical or applied ideas are encouraged. Suggested length is up to 4,000 words for opinion pieces and up to 2,000 words for commentaries.

There are no limits on the number of references for any article type.

1.3 Writing your paper

The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance your article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

2. Editorial policies

2.1 Peer review policy

Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication.

Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

  • The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors.

  • The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper.

  • The author has recommended the reviewer.

  • The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution).

The journal’s policy is to have manuscripts reviewed by a minimum of two expert reviewers. Quantum Economics and Finance utilizes a single-anonymized peer review process in which the reviewer’s name and information is withheld from the author. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, while maintaining rigor. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the Editor who then makes the final decision.

The Editors or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the Journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

Special issue manuscripts are managed by an external Guest Editor who will handle the peer review process of each submission. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the Guest Editor. The guest Editor then recommends a decision on the manuscript, while the final decision is made by the Journal Editors.

Quantum Economics and Finance is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Web of Science (previously Publons). Web of Science is a third-party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for Quantum Economics and Finance can opt in to Web of Science in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Web of Science website.

2.2 Authorship

All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

2.3 Acknowledgements

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

Per ICMJE recommendations, it is best practice to obtain consent from non-author contributors who you are acknowledging in your paper.  

2.3.1 Third party submissions

Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

  • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input

  • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance

  • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

2.3.2 Writing assistance

Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

2.4 Funding

Quantum Economics and Finance requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

It is the policy of Quantum Economics and Finance to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles. 

Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

2.6 Research data

The Journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

  • Share your research data in a relevant public data repository

  • Include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, use the statement to confirm why it cannot be shared.

  • Cite this data in your research

Peer reviewers may be asked to peer review the research data prior to publication.

  • Peer reviewers may be asked to assess compliance with the research data policy

  • Peer reviewers may be asked to assess research data files

If you need to anonymize your research data for peer review, please refer to our Research Data Sharing FAQs for guidance.

3. Publishing policies

3.1 Publication ethics

Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

3.1.1 Plagiarism

Quantum Economics and Finance and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the Journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

3.1.2 Prior publication

If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement      

Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive license agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information, please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

3.3 Open access and author archiving

Quantum Economics and Finance offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

4.1 Formatting

The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. A LaTeX template is available on the Preparing Your Manuscript page of our Author Gateway.

4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

Figures supplied in color will appear in color online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For specifically requested color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

4.3 Supplemental material

This Journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc.) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files.

4.4 Reference style

Quantum Economics and Finance adheres to the Sage Harvard reference style. View the Sage Harvard guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the Sage Harvard EndNote output file

4.6 English language editing services

Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the Journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

5. Submitting your manuscript

Quantum Economics and Finance is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/qef to login and submit your article online.

IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the Journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

5.1 ORCID

As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this Journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

5.2 Information required for completing your submission

You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

5.3 Permissions

Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

6. On acceptance and publication

6.1 Sage Production

Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

6.2 Online First publication

Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

6.3 Access to your published article

Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

6.4 Promoting your article

Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

7. Further information

Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Quantum Economics and Finance editorial office as follows:

ehaven@mun.ca and +1 709 864 2069

7.1 Appealing the publication decision

Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at publication_ethics@sagepub.com

Individual Subscription, E-access


Individual Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)


Institutional Subscription, E-access


Institutional Subscription, Print Only


Institutional Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)


Individual, Single Print Issue


Agency Subscription, DDP


Institutional, Single Print Issue