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The New World of Police Accountability
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The New World of Police Accountability

Third Edition


January 2019 | 360 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

“This book gives a brief yet thorough summary of the main components of police accountability in the 21st century. What works, what doesn’t, and where are we going in the future? I love to use it with my undergraduate students to help them understand the complexities of policing in the modern era.”
—Janne E. Gaub, East Carolina University

Completely revised to cover recent events and research, the Third Edition of The New World of Police Accountability provides an original and comprehensive analysis of some of the most important developments in police accountability and reform strategies. With a keen and incisive perspective, esteemed authors and policing researchers, Samuel Walker and Carol Archbold, address the most recent developments and provide an analysis of what works, what reforms are promising, and what has proven unsuccessful. The book’s analysis draws on current research, as well as the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing and the reforms embodied in Justice Department consent decrees.

New to the Third Edition:

  • The national crisis over police legitimacy and use of force, is put into context through extensive discussions of recent police shootings and the response to this national crisis, providing readers a valuable perspective on the positive steps that have been taken and the limits of those steps.
  • Coverage of the issues related to police officer uses of force is now the prevailing topic in Chapter 3 and includes detailed discussion of the topic, including de-escalation, tactical decision making, and the important changes in training related to these issues.
  • An updated examination of the impact of technology on policing, including citizens’ use of recording devices, body-worn cameras, open data provided by police agencies, and use of social media, explores how technology contributes to police accountability in the United States. 
  • A complete, up-to-date discussion of citizen oversight of the police provides details on the work of selected oversight agencies, including the positive developments and their limitations, enabling readers to have an informed discussion of the subject.
  • Detailed coverage of routine police activities that often generate public controversy now includes such topics as responding to mental health calls, domestic violence calls, and police "stop and frisk" practices.
  • Issues related to policing and race relations are addressed head-on through a careful examination of the data, as well as the impact of recent reforms that have attempted to achieve professional, bias-free policing.
Visit the author's resource guide here

 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
PART I: INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW POLICE ACCOUNTABILITY
 
1. A National Police Crisis
Ferguson 2014: The Shooting of Michael Brown

 
A National Police Crisis

 
The New Conversation About Policing and Police Reform

 
The Challenge of Police Accountability

 
A Definition of Police Accountability

 
PTSR: A Framework for Accountability

 
Basic Themes in the New Police Accountability

 
The Challenge Ahead: Reasons for Hope, Reasons for Caution

 
 
2. The Accomplishments and Limits of Traditional Police Reforms
Introduction

 
The Police Professionalization Movement

 
The Courts and Police Reform

 
Legislative and Related Strategies for Police Reform

 
Conclusion: The Lessons of Past Reforms

 
 
PART II: THE ELEMENTS OF THE NEW POLICE ACCOUNTABILITY
 
3. The “Heart Of The Matter”: Controlling Police Officer Use of Force
Introduction

 
Administrative Rulemaking: The Basic Model for Controlling Officer Conduct

 
Controlling Police Use of Deadly Force

 
Police Use of Less Lethal Force

 
Controlling Police Use of Physical Force

 
The Reporting and Investigation of Use of Force

 
De-Escalation as a Strategy for Limiting Use of Force

 
How Accountability-related Reforms Can Transform the Police Subculture

 
Conclusion

 
 
4. Controlling Critical Incidents
Introduction

 
Controlling Pedestrian Stops and Frisks

 
“Driving While Black”: Traffic Stops and the Racial Profiling Controversy

 
Vehicle Pursuits: Reducing the Risks

 
Officer Foot Pursuits: Reducing the Risks

 
The Deployment of Canines: Reducing the Harms

 
Reducing Gender-Related Bias in Policing

 
Responding to Mental Health–Related Incidents

 
Achieving Bias-Free Policing

 
Ensuring Officer Integrity

 
Ensuring Officer Wellness

 
Guaranteeing People’s First Amendment Rights

 
Conclusion

 
 
5. Public Complaints and Police Accountability
Introduction

 
A Short History of Public Complaints, Internal Affairs Units, and Public Oversight

 
Basic Issues of Complaints and Complaint Investigations

 
The Public Complaint Process

 
Accepting, Recording, Screening, and Classifying Complaints

 
Investigating Complaints

 
The Disposition of Complaints

 
Ensuring the Quality of the Complaint Process

 
Staffing and Managing the Complaint Process

 
Evaluating the Complaint Process

 
Conclusion

 
 
6. Early Intervention Systems
Introduction

 
The Background and Development of the EIS Concept

 
Basic Issues in Early Intervention Systems

 
The Basic Requirements for an EIS

 
The Components of an EIS

 
The Challenge of Implementing an Early Intervention System

 
Impacts of an Early Intervention System

 
The Effectiveness of Early Intervention Systems

 
The Experiences and Perceptions of EIS Police Managers

 
Conclusion

 
 
7. External Review of the Police
Introduction

 
Basic Features of Police Auditors and Inspectors General

 
The Work of the Inspector General for the NYPD

 
The San Jose Independent Police Auditor

 
The Los Angeles Police Commission and Inspector General

 
The Washington, DC, Office of Police Complaints

 
A Lost Agency: The Special Counsel to the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department

 
Blue-Ribbon Commissions

 
The Strengths and Limits of External Review

 
Another Lost Program: The Collaborative Reform Initiative

 
Conclusion

 
 
PART III: CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN ACCOUNTABILITY
 
8. Increasing Accountability with Risk Management
What is Risk Management?

 
Risk Management, Police Liability, and Accountability

 
Early Intervention Systems and Risk Management

 
The Prevalence of Risk Management in American Policing

 
Research on Risk Management in Policing

 
Barriers to the Implementation of Risk Management

 
Overcoming Barriers to Implementation: The Case of Risk Management in Medicine

 
Innovative Risk Management in Risk Management in Medicine: The Checklist

 
Checklists and Policing: Could it Work?

 
Legalized Accountability and Police Reform

 
Insurance Companies as Accountability Agents

 
Looking Ahead: The Future of Risk Management in Policing

 
 
9. Police Accountability and Technology
Introduction

 
Video-Recording Devices Used by the Public

 
Using Apps to Report Police Misconduct

 
Video-Recording Devices Used by the Police

 
Compliance With Body-Worn Camera Activation Policies

 
Perceptions of Police Body Cameras

 
Using Social Media to Inform the Public of Police Misconduct

 
Increasing Police Accountability with Open Data

 
The Future of Technology and Police Accountability

 
 
PART IV: THE FUTURE OF POLICE ACCOUNTABILITY
 
10. The Future of Police Accountability
The National Police Crisis and its Impact

 
Progress: “Best Practices” Today

 
Threats to the Future of Police Accountability

 
Final Thoughts

 
 
Index

 “In-depth of materials and explanations of a new area of policing, which are relevant to today’s police – incorporates evidence based research and real-life examples. Appropriate for an upper level undergraduate course, or a graduate course.”

Karin Tusinski Miofsky
Lakeland University

 “Significant to understanding the trust and legitimacy crisis in American policing today. Thorough coverage of the best practices an agency could and should be employing to become as open and accountable to the communities they serve as possible. Information students aspiring to careers in law enforcement, current practitioners, and concerned citizens of any community should familiarize themselves with.”

Connie M. Koski, Ph.D.
Longwood University

“A great book, covers much of the information one would cover in a policing class and also in an Ethics in Law Enforcement class.”

Rebecca Paynich

“This book gives a brief yet thorough summary of the main components of police accountability in the 21st century. What works, what doesn’t, and where are we going in the future? I love to use it with my undergraduate students to help them understand the complexities of policing in the modern era.”

Janne E. Gaub
East Carolina University
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • The national crisis over police legitimacy and use of force is put into context through extensive discussions of recent police shootings and the response to this national crisis, providing readers a valuable perspective on the positive steps that have been taken and the limits of those steps.
  • Coverage of the issues related to police officer uses of force is now the prevailing topic in Chapter 3 and includes detailed discussion of the topic, including de-escalation, tactical decision making, and the important changes in training related to these issues.
  • An updated examination of the impact of technology on policing, including citizens’ use of recording devices, body-worn cameras, open data provided by police agencies, and use of social media, explores how technology contributes to police accountability in the United States. 
  • A complete, up-to-date discussion of citizen oversight of the police provides details on the work of selected oversight agencies, including the positive developments and their limitations, enabling readers to have an informed discussion of the subject.
  • Detailed coverage of routine police activities that often generate public controversy now includes such topics as responding to mental health calls, domestic violence calls, and police "stop and frisk" practices.
  • Issues related to policing and race relations are addressed head-on through a careful examination of the data, as well as the impact of recent reforms that have attempted to achieve professional, bias-free policing.

KEY FEATURES:

  • Discussions of important mechanisms of accountability, such as comprehensive use of force reporting, citizen complaint procedures, early intervention systems, and police auditors, provide students with a broad overview and understanding of the systems and procedures.
  • Extensive coverage of racial profiling ensures students have a keen perspective of the issue.
  • Learning Objectives at the start of each chapter help readers evaluate their understanding of the key topics.

 

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