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The Public Sphere

The Public Sphere

Four Volume Set
Edited by:

December 2010 | 1 672 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd
The idea of the public sphere as the space where citizens come together to deliberate on issues of common concern and to critique and influence the government has been one of the most influential and contested concepts since the beginnings of debates on the constitution of democracy. But the notion of a public sphere is certainly not simply of historical interest. It remains central to contemporary issues such as the democratic potential of the internet, the challenges posed by the resurgence of fundamentalisms, and the possibilities for a post-national, cosmopolitan, political order in the age of globalization.

This four volume set is a 'must-have' guide to the idea of the public sphere, its history, the ongoing struggles over its meaning and importance to democracy, and its continuing relevance to emerging issues. It offers an authoritative presentation of the 'canon' in this area of scholarship, emphasizing 20th century and recent contributions.

Volume 1 Defining the Public Sphere

Volume 2 The Political Public Sphere

Volume 3 The Cultural Public Sphere

Volume 4 The Future of the Public Sphere

Volume 1 explores how the public sphere was discovered as a historical fact and 'invented' as an idea and ideal, while also being rejected to varying degrees by theorists sceptical or negative to the idea of deliberative democracy. Volume 2 looks at the political public sphere where government may be directly challenged. The cultural public sphere has been largely overlooked in the tradition of public sphere theory. Volume 3 aims to contribute to a renewed interest in this key area in democratic public life. This final volume focuses on two current developments that are posing new questions for the idea of the public sphere - the rise of the internet and the emergence of transnational regions and global networks.

Part 1: Inventing the Public Sphere
Speech to the Electors of Bristol

Edmund Burke
An Answer to the Question: 'What Is Enlightenment?'

Immanuel Kant
On Public Opinion

Alexander Hamilton
On Public Opinion

Jacques Peuchet
Excerpt from Critique of the Power of Judgment

Immanuel Kant
Public Opinion

James Madison
Excerpt from Toward Perpetual Peace

Immanuel Kant
Excerpt from The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Moderns

Benjamin Constant
Excerpt from Elements of the Philosophy of Right

W.F. Hegel
Excerpt from On Liberty

John Stuart Mill
Part 2: 'Mass Society', Democracy and Public Opinion
Excerpt from Critique of Public Opinion

Ferdinand Tönnies
The Principles of Parliamentarism

Carl Schmitt
Excerpts from The Phantom Public

Walter Lippmann
Excerpt from The Public and Its Problems

John Dewey
Excerpt from Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy

Joseph A. Schumpeter
Part 3: The Rediscovery of the Public Sphere
The Public and the Private Realm

Hannah Arendt
On Judgment and Politics

Hannah Arendt
The Publice Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article

J rgen Habermas
The Scientization of Politics and Public Opinion

J rgen Habermas
Introduction to Public Sphere and Experience

Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge
The End of Public Culture

Richard Sennett
Part 4: Debating the Public Sphere
The Blurring of Public and Private Behaviours

Joshua Meyrowitz
Societal Complexity and Public Opinion

Niklas Luhmann
Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy

Nancy Fraser
Further Reflections on the Public Sphere

J rgen Habermas
The Public and the Private Sphere: A Feminist Reconsideration

Joan B. Landes
Public Intimacies, Private Citizens: Inequalities and the Pluralization of Public Spheres

Ken Plummer
Part 1: The Public Sphere and Deliberative Democracy
On Legitimacy and Political Deliberation

Bernard Manin
Deliberation and Democratic Legitimacy

Joshua Cohen
Civil Society, Public Opinion, and Communicative Power

J rgen Habermas
Three Normative Models of Democracy

J rgen Habermas
The Sense of Reciprocity

Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson
The Idea of Public Reason Revisited

John Rawls
Deliberative Democracy or Agonistic Pluralism?

Chantal Mouffe
Is the Ideal of a Deliberative Democracy Coherent?

Cristina Lafont
Part 2: The Political Public Sphere at Work: Public Opinion
The Nature of Personal Influence

Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson and Hazel Gaudet
Democratic Theory and Public Opinion

Bernard Berelson
Opinion Research and Publicness

Theodor W. Adorno
The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media

Maxwell E. McCombs and Donald L. Shaw
The Spiral of Silence: A Theory of Public Opinion

Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann
Public Opinion Does Not Exist

Pierre Bourdieu
Part 3: The Political Public Sphere at Work: Deliberation
Against Deliberation

Lynn M. Sanders
Deliberation as Discussion

James D. Fearon
Good Citizens and Bad History: Today's Political Ideals in Historical Perspective

Michael Schudson
Measuring Publicity's Effect: Reconciling Empirical Research and Normative Theory

Simone Chambers
Political Communication in Media Society: Does Democracy Still Enjoy an Epistemic Dimension? The Impact of Normative Theory on Empirical Research

J rgen Habermas
The Surprising Failures of Deliberating Groups

Cass R. Sunstein
Disaggregating Deliberation's Effects: An Experiment within a Deliberative Poll

Cynthia Farrar et al
Part 1: Aesthetics, Ethics, Politics
Discourses and Institutions
The Dialectic of the Aesthetic Power of Judgment

Immanuel Kant
Letter to M. d'Alembert on the Theatre

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Theater Considered as a Moral Institution

Friedrich Schiller
Institutions of the Public Sphere

J rgen Habermas

Theodor W. Adorno
Aesthetic Experience and Political Impact
On the Social Function of Literature

Hans Robert Jauss
Tales of Sound and Fury: Observations on the Family Melodrama

Thomas Elsaesser
History as Entertainment and Provocation: The TV Series 'Holocaust' in West Germany

Siegfried Zielinski
On Theatre

Bertolt Brecht
On Uncle Tom's Cabin

Henry Louis Gates Jr and Hollis Robbins
Part 2: Publics and Markets
Publics and Readers
The Bourgeois Family and the Institutionalization of a Privateness Oriented to an Audience

J rgen Habermas
The Reading Public and the Rise of the Novel

Ian Watt
Early Cinema: Whose Public Sphere?

Miriam Hansen
Perspectives on Media and the Modern Public
Culture Industry Reconsidered

Theodor W. Adorno
Free Time

Theodor W. Adorno
Human Interest Stories and Democracy

Helen MacGill Hughes
Celebrity Culture and Public Connection: Bridge or Chasm?

Nick Couldry and Tim Markham
Public Service Broadcasting and Modern Public Life

Paddy Scannell
The Cultural Public Sphere

Jim McGuigan
Beyond the Semantic 'Big Bang': Cultural Sociology and an Aesthetic Public Sphere

Paul Jones
Section 3: Identity, Identification and Imagination
The Origins of National Consciousness

Benedict Anderson
Suppose James Brown Read Fanon: The Black Arts Movement, Cultural Nationalism and the Failure of Popular Musical Praxis

Michael Hanson
This Book Changes Lives: The 'Consciousness-Raising Novel' and Its Legacy

Imelda Whelehan and Maroula Joannou
Taking Sides

Luc Boltanski
The Discourse of Global Compassion: The Audience and Media Reporting of Human Suffering

Birgitta Höijer
Part 4: Cultural Policy and the Public Sphere
Can a Liberal State Support Art?

Ronald Dworkin
The Media and the Public Sphere

Nicholas Garnham
Learning from Experience: Cultural Policies and Cultural Democracy in the 20th Century

Jostein Gripsrud
Building the Digital Commons: Public Broadcasting in the Age of the Internet

Graham Murdock
Part 1: The Internet as a Public Sphere
Cyberdemocracy: Internet and the Public Sphere

Mark Poster
Democracy Online: Civility, Politeness, and the Democratic Potential of Online Political Discussion Groups

Zizi Papacharissi
Dismantling the Digital Divide: Rethinking the Dynamics of Participation and Exclusion

Graham Murdock and Peter Golding
The Internet, Public Spheres, and Political Communication: Dispersion and Deliberation

Peter Dahlgren
Whose Voice Is Heard in Online Deliberation? A Study of Participation and Representation in Political Debates on the Internet

Steffen Albrecht
Todd Gitlin
Part 2: Fragmentation and Segmentation
Public Sphere or Public Sphericules?


John Keane
Against the Tide? Small Groups, Social Movements, and the Net

Robert D. Putnam
On Power Law Distributions, Network Topology, and Being Heard

Yochai Benkler
Neither Hayek nor Habermas

Cass R. Sunstein
Part 3: Difference and Deliberation
Difference as a Resource for Democratic Communication

Iris Marion Young
Deliberative Democracy, Self-determination, and Multiculturalism

Seyla Benhabib
Religion in the Public Sphere

J rgen Habermas
Part 4: Transnational Public Spheres
National and Transnational Public Spheres

Bernhard Peters
Expanding Dialogue: The Internet, the Public Sphere and Prospects for Transnational Democracy

James Bohman
Beyond Migration: Islam as a Transnational Public Space

John R. Bowen
Television and the European Public Sphere

Jostein Gripsrud
Transnationalizing the Public Sphere: On the Legitimacy and Efficacy of Public Opinion in a Post-Westphalian World

Nancy Fraser
Global 24/7 News Providers: Emissaries of Global Dominance or Global Public Sphere?

Simon Cottle and Mugdha Rai
The New Public Sphere: Global Civil Society, Communication Networks, and Global Governance

Manuel Castells
Uniting and Dividing: The European Public Sphere as an Unfinished Project

Hans-Jörg Trenz
Pressure on Press Freedom: The Current Religious War on Freedom of Expression

Frederik Stjernfelt

Sample Materials & Chapters

Editor's Introduction