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Personality and Social Psychology Review

Personality and Social Psychology Review

eISSN: 15327957 | ISSN: 10888683 | Current volume: 28 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: Quarterly

About the Title
Personality and Social Psychology Review is an official journal of SPSP, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. It is the premiere outlet for original theoretical papers in all areas of personality and social psychology. In the pages of PSPR, you will find stimulating conceptual pieces that identify exciting new directions for research on the psychological underpinnings of human individuality and social functioning, as well as those that provide new, integrative frameworks for innovating existing research programs. The journal welcomes submissions that center personality and social psychology, but is especially interested in submissions that demonstrate the ways in which these fields connect to other disciplines, both within psychology, and beyond to disciplines in the social sciences, humanities, arts, medicine, nursing, education, and life sciences. The journal wants to publish theory that makes a difference in the real world and is especially interested in theory that speaks to the experiences of people who are marginalized or oppressed by prevailing power structures. Occasionally PSPR publishes other pieces of particular interest to members of the Society, such as special topical issues, selected symposia, and invited addresses. All papers are reviewed with respect to their scholarly merit.

Please see the Editor’s incoming editorial for more information.

Manuscript Submissions

To submit manuscript for editorial consideration, please visit

Then create an account or login if you already have one, click on "Author Center," and follow the online instructions.

For additional assistance, see ScholarOne Manuscript Central or email the Editor, Jonathan Adler, at

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

PSPR aims to publish theory that makes a difference in the real world. The journal is especially interested in theory that speaks to the experiences of people who are marginalized or oppressed by prevailing power structures.

PSPR papers must be grounded in personality and social psychology, but the journal is welcoming to scholarship that demonstrate the ways in which these fields connect to other disciplines, both within psychology, and beyond to disciplines in the social sciences, humanities, arts, medicine, nursing, and life sciences.

Jonathan M. Adler Case Western Reserve University, USA
Associate Editors
Kathleen R. Bogart Oregon State University, USA
Cindy McPherson Frantz Oberlin College, USA
Eranda Jayawickreme Wake Forest University, USA
Phia S. Salter Davidson College, USA
Sarah C. E. Stanton University of Edinburgh, UK
Editorial Fellow
Pegah Nejat Shahid Beheshti University, Iran
Editorial Board
Katarzyna Adamczyk Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland
Mai Albzour Birzeit University, Palestine
Elise L. Amel University of St. Thomas, USA
Stephen Antonoplis University of California at Riverside, USA
Stephen Baffour Adjei Akenten Appiah-Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development, Ghana
Angela Bahns Wellesley College, USA
Erica N. Baranski California State University East Bay, USA
Gülseli Baysu Queen's University of Belfast, UK
Behzad Behzadnia University of Tabriz, Iran
Karim Bettache The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Laura E. R. Blackie University of Nottingham, UK
Jordan A. Booker University of Missouri, USA
Angelo Brandelli Costa Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Jessica R. Bray University of Kentucky, USA
Susanne Bruckmüller Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
Claudia Brumbaugh Queens College, City University of New York, USA
Anthony L. Burrow Cornell University, USA
Melody Chao Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China
Cecilia Cheng The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Joanne Chung University of Toronto, Canada
Brett R. Coleman Clark University, USA
Shauna Cooper University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
Rebecca Covarrubias University of California at Santa Cruz, USA
Mesmin Destin Northwestern University, USA
Arianne E. Eason University of California at Berkeley, USA
Asia A. Eaton Florida International University, USA
Lameese Eldesouky The American University in Cairo, Egypt
Allison K. Farrell Miami University, USA
Irina Feygina See Change Institute, USA
Jillian Fish Macalester College, USA
Roberto González Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile
Kurt Gray University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
Azriel Grysman Dickinson College, USA
Cristián Guillermo Rodríguez Universidad de los Andes, Chile
Gul Gunaydin Sabanci University, Turkey
Takeshi Hamamura Curtin University, Australia
Phillip L. Hammack University of California at Santa Cruz, USA
Eric Hehman McGill University, Canada
Nazanin M. Heydarian University of Texas at Rio Grande Valley, USA
James L. Huff Harding University, USA
Roland Imhoff Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany
Azra Jahanitabesh University of California at Davis, USA
Brett Jakubiak Syracuse University, USA
Elise Kalokerinos University of Melbourne, Australia
Arzu Karakulak MEF University, Turkey
Yoshihisa Kashima University of Melbourne, Australia
Brian TaeHyuk Keum Boston College, United States
Lili Khechuashvili Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia
Jonas R. Kunst University of Oslo, Norway
Benedek Kurdi University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA
Sarah Lamer University of Tennessee at Knoxville, USA
Neil A. Lewis, Jr. Cornell University, USA
Amy J. Lim Murdoch University, Australia
E. Paige Lloyd University of Denver, USA
Débora Maehler Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Germany
Angela T. Maitner American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Jessica A. Maxwell University of Auckland, New Zealand
Kira O. McCabe Carleton University, Canada
Missaye M. Mengstie University of Gondar,Ethiopia
Taciano L. Milfont University of Waikato, New Zealand
Lauren L. Mitchell Emmanuel College, USA
Kristine M. Molina University of California at Irvine, USA
Thekla Morgenroth Purdue University, USA
Laura P. Naumann Nevada State College, USA
Izuchukwu L.G. Ndukaihe Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Nigeria
Masi Noor Keele Unviersity, UK
Chidozie Nwafor Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria
Milan Obaidi Copenhagen University, Denmark
Tosin T. Olonisakin Ekiti State University, Nigeria
Gideon S. Omachonu Nasarawa State University, Nigeria
Annabella Opare-Henaku University of Ghana at Legon, Ghana
Adebukola E. Oyewunmi Teesside University, UK
Sun W. Park Korea University, South Korea
Cicero Roberto Pereira University of Lisbon, Portugal
Michael J. Perez Wesleyan University, USA
Stefan Pfattheicher Aarhus University, Denmark
Séamus A. Power University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Eshkol Rafaeli Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Christine E. Reyna DePaul University, Chicago, IL, USA
Jason D. Reynolds (Taewon Choi) University of San Francisco, USA
Grace N. Rivera University of Mississippi, USA
Leoandra Onnie Rogers Northwestern University, USA
John K. Sakaluk Western University, Canada
Maria Guadalupe C. Salanga De La Salle University-Manila, Philippines
Gerard Saucier University of Oregon, USA
Mark Schaller University of British Columbia, Canada
Michael Schmitt Simon Fraser University, Canada
Karina Schumann University of Pittsburgh, USA
Hema Preya Selvanathan University of Queensland, Australia
Miguel A. Silan Université Lumière Lyon, France
Sanjay Srivastava SOAS, University of London, London, UK
Chiango Tadios Midlands State University, Zimbabwe
Kim-Pong Tam Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China
Akhenaten Siankam Tankwanchi University of Washington, USA
Beyza Tepe MEF University, Turkey
Amber Gayle Thalmayer University of Zürich, Switzerland
Samantha Tornello Pennsylvania State University, USA
Nicholas A. Turiano West Virginia University, USA
Yukiko Uchida Kyoto University, Japan
Ayse K. Üskül University of Sussex, UK
Jasper Van Assche Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Leaf Van Boven University of Colorado at Boulder, USA
Kees van den Bos Utrecht University, The Netherlands
Álvaro Javier Verges Gómez Universidad de los Andes, Chile
Jenny Wagner University of Hamburg, Germany
Katie Wang Yale University School of Public Health, USA
Y. Andre Wang University of Toronto, Canada
Gregory D. Webster University of Florida, USA
Nic M. Weststrate University of Illinois Chicago, USA
Ning Zhang Zhejiang University, China
Xi Zou Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Emerging Editor Board
Raymond Agyenim-Boateng Lingnan University, Hong Kong
Alix T. Alto CUNY Graduate Center, USA
Stephen Anderson Pennsylvania State University, USA
Aldo Barrita University of Nevada at Las Vegas, USA
Polina Beloborodova Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Reece D Bush-Evans Bournemouth University, UK
Carmen Cervone University of Padova, Italy
Shao-Chun Chuang National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan (R.O.C)
Herman R. Clements Purdue University, USA
Daniel Copulsky University of California at Santa Cruz, USA
Natasha N. DeMeo Clemson University, USA
Emerson Do Bú University of Lisbon, Portugal
Mustafa Firat Radboud University, Netherlands
Gabriel Gaudencio do Rêgo Mackenzie Presbyterian University, Brazil
Sakshi Ghai University of Cambridge, UK
Marta Godoy-Giménez University of Almeria, Spain
Xinqi Guo University of California at San Diego, USA
Hannah R. Hamilton University of Chicago, USA
Nicholas R. Harp Yale University, USA
Mohamed A. Hussein Stanford University, USA
Kristin Jankowsky University of Kassel, Germany
Alma Jeftic University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Savas Karatas Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Germany
Jonah Koetke University of Pittsburgh, USA
Alethea H. Q. Koh Kyoto University, Japan
Kori L. Krueger Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Niclas Kuper University of Münster, Germany
Bethany Lassetter New York University, USA
Jillian E. Lauer New York University, USA
Katherine M. Lawson Rhodes College, USA
Joel M. Le Forestier University of Toronto, Canada
Jacqueline Lechuga The University of Texas at El Paso, USA
Suyeon Lee Northwestern University, USA
Ranran Li Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands
Tingting Liu National Institute on Drug Abuse, USA
Marco Marinucci University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy
Jose L. Martinez Florida State University, USA
Alison Jane Martingano National Institutes of Health, USA
Emma L. McGorray Northwestern University, USA
Marie-Catherine Mignault McGill University, Canada
Fahima Mohideen Rutgers University at Newark, USA
Bianca Monachesi University of Trento, Italy
Vincent, Y. S. Oh National University of Singapore, Singapore
Flora Oswald The Pennsylvania State University, USA
Rista C Plate University of Pennsylvania, USA
Brandon L Porter University of Tennessee at Knoxville, USA
Lotte Pummerer Tübingen University, Germany
S.M. Ramya Indian Institute of Technology at Madras, India
Melanie A. Reyes Saint Louis University, USA
Daniela Ruzzante University of Trento, Italy
Livia Sacchi University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Eri Sasaki University of Toronto, CA
Gülden Sayilan VU Amsterdam, Netherlands
Andrea Scatolon University of Trento, Italy
Nathaniel E.C. Schermerhorn Pennsylvania State University, USA
Haran Sened Princeton University, USA
Amanda A Sesker Florida State University College of Medicine, USA
Baris Sevi University of Connecticut, USA
Maria Stogianni Tilburg University, Netherlands
Kevin M Summers University of Denver, USA
Stylianos Syropoulos University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA
Hasagani Tissera McGill University, Canada
Zena Toh Christopher Newport University, USA
Jesse S. Y. Tse University of Melbourne, Australia
Betul Urganci University of Texas at Austin, USA
Vinita Vader University of Oregon, USA
Michael Vallerga University of California at Santa Cruz, USA
Natalia Van doren Pennsylvania State University, USA
Matthew E Vanaman The University of Texas at Austin, USA
Bojana Veckalov University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Felipe Vilanova Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Nina Waddell The University of Auckland, New Zealand
Cheuk-yue Wan University of Sydney, Australia
Summer R. Whillock University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA
Hope I. White University at Buffalo, State University of New York, USA
Sydney G. Wicks University of Mississippi, USA
Natasha R. Wood University of Mississippi, USA
Steven Zhou George Mason University, USA
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Personality and Social Psychology Review

    Thank you for preparing your work for submission to Personality and Social Psychology Review!  We are really looking forward to engaging with your ideas.  Below you will find a comprehensive set of information about publishing in PSPR.  This document combines journal-specific policies and policies that apply to all Sage journals.  For a complete description of the documents you will need to prepare prior to submitting your manuscript to PSPR, please carefully review Section 1  and Section 5.2, below.

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please visit the Author Gateway and Publishing Policies page for additional resources, including information on our name change policy.

    Please read the guidelines below then visit PSPR’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    Sage Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Personality and Social Psychology Review will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in PSPR and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that Personality and Social Psychology Review will consider submissions of papers that have been posted on preprint servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in PSPR. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to PSPR's author archiving policy.

    If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal.

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope
    1.2 Article types
    1.3 Writing your paper

    2. Sage editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy
    2.2 Authorship
    2.3 Acknowledgements
    2.4 Funding
    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    2.6 Research data

    3. Publishing policies

    3.1 Publication ethics
    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    4. Preparing your manuscript

    4.1 Formatting
    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    4.3 Identifiable information
    4.4 Reference style
    4.5 English language editing services

    5. Submitting your manuscript

    5.1 ORCID
    5.2 Information and sections required for completing your submission
    5.3 Permissions

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production
    6.2 Online First publication
    6.3 Access to your published article
    6.4 Promoting your article

    7. Further information

    7.1 Appealing the publication decision

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to PSPR, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article types

    Personality and Social Psychology Review (PSPR) publishes original theoretical papers and conceptual review articles in personality and social psychology. As an official publication of SPSP, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, PSPR (a) supports the society’s objectives of the scientific advancement of personality and social psychology and the advancement of human welfare, (b) provides an outlet for important theoretical developments and emerging trends in the fields of personality and social psychology worldwide, and (c) presents a versatile outlet for substantive work that does not readily fit the existing publication molds.

    PSPR is intended as a forum for integrative theoretical pieces that initiate new lines of research and theory or synthesize existing theory and fields of research. The journal prioritizes manuscripts that present novel theoretical insights that emerge from a deep integration of previously-published empirical research.  This means that straightforward summaries of a single research lab’s body of work, or theory aimed at a very narrow set of scholars, does not meet our priorities.  Manuscripts relying on quantitative methods, such as meta-analyses and systematic reviews, must do more than summarize their findings, but also use those findings to substantially advance theory.  The journal does not publish methodological papers unless they make a direct and substantial contribution to theory. Occasionally PSPR publishes other pieces of particular interest to members of the Society, such as special topical issues, selected symposia, and invited addresses. All papers are reviewed with respect to their scholarly merit.

    Before you log into the Manuscript Central portal, please read these submission guidelines carefully.  They should help you have everything you need before you start the submission process.  Compliance with these policies is verified upon submission of manuscripts. Failure to comply with the policies will prevent submission and review of manuscripts.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

    2. Sage Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    •  The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors

    •  The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper

    •  The author has recommended the reviewer

    •  The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution). 

    2.2 Authorship

    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    Per ICMJE recommendations, it is best practice to obtain consent from non-author contributors who you are acknowledging in your paper.                   

    2.3.1 Third party submissions
    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding

    PSPR requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of PSPR to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.
    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    2.6 Research data

    PSPR is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and all manuscripts reporting meta-analyses or systematic reviews will be required to upload specific supplementary materials. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages and PSPR’s TOP Guidelines.

    As a condition of publication, authors are required to:

    • Share your research data in a relevant public data repository, if relevant
    • Include a data availability statement, if relevant. This should:
      • Indicate if data is available and shared
      • In certain cases, indicate if research data is available but not shared, and why. If you cannot share your data and this is a requirement of publication, consult PSPR editorial office.
      • Indicate if there is an absence of data
    • Cite data in your research, if relevant

    Peer reviewers may be asked to peer review the research data prior to publication.

    • Peer reviewers may be asked to assess compliance with the research data policy
    • Peer reviewers may be asked to assess research data files

    If you need to anonymize your research data for peer review, please refer to our Research Data Sharing FAQs for guidance.

    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    PSPR and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of PSPR against malpractice. Submitted articles will be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement      

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive license agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information, please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    PSPR offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission                              

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word or a rich text format. All components of the manuscript should be double-spaced and should conform to the formatting and style conventions of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    4.3 Identifiable information

    PSPR uses double-anonymized peer review.  Authors are required to submit:

    1. A version of the manuscript which has had any information that compromises the anonymity of the author(s) removed or anonymised. Please see the section below on Positionality Statements for more information about this.  This version will be sent to the peer reviewers.
    2. A separate title page which includes any removed or anonymised material. This will not be sent to the peer reviewers.

    See for detailed guidance on making an anonymous submission.

    Figures supplied in color will appear in color online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For specifically requested color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.4 Reference style

    PSPR adheres to the APA reference style. View the APA guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit PSPR’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    5. Submitting your manuscript

    PSPR is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for PSPR in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    Author Center. Once logged in, select “Author Center” and follow the link for manuscript submission. The website will guide you through the necessary steps to upload your submission. You will be required to provide at least 3 keywords for your submission. You will have the opportunity to upload a cover letter with your submission, and you will be asked to confirm that the manuscript is an original work that is not concurrently under editorial consideration at another journal and that conforms to the ethical guidelines of the American Psychological Association. Submitting authors may suggest preferred and non-preferred reviewers, although the editors retain final discretion in the selection of reviewers. If you have questions, use the “Get Help Now” link.

    Manuscript Review and Acceptance. Submitted manuscripts are screened by the editors to determine their general suitability and match to the journal’s mission. Manuscripts that fall within the journal’s purview are then peer reviewed.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this Journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information and sections required for completing your submission

    You will need to prepare three files (and up to five optional additional files) in preparing your submission: 

    1) Cover Letter – The cover letter should be a brief statement that accompanies your submission.  The cover letter should (i) summarize the content of the manuscript in a sentence or two, (ii) describe why you have decided to submit it to PSPR, (iii) confirm that your manuscript has not been submitted for consideration for publication elsewhere, (iv) confirm that your manuscript adheres to the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct Standard 8, which covers research and publication, (v) recommend external peer reviewers who will be able to offer a fair assessment of the manuscript, (vi) include demographic data for all contributing authors.  This information will remain masked to handling editors and peer reviewers and will not be taken into account when handling your manuscript.  It will only be used in the aggregate by the editorial team when evaluating our editorial practice.

    2) Title Page – The title page should contain (i) a title for the manuscript, no longer than 50 words, and (ii) a running head for the manuscript, containing no more than 50 characters and spaces.

    3) Main Document – The main document should contain (i) the Academic Abstract (150 words max) and Public Abstract (150 words, max) (see below for more information), (ii) the entirety of your manuscript, including references, figures, tables and images (unless figures, tables, and images are best accommodated by separate files).  The main document should not include the names and affiliations of the authors. 

    4) Figures (if relevant) – You may choose to upload a separate file with figures. Figure captions should appear at the end of the manuscript and should be consecutively numbered with Arabic numerals; make captions intelligible without reference to the text. If a figure is reprinted or adapted from another source, include a credit line in the caption. Each figure should be prepared and saved in a separate, clearly identified file, which will be uploaded to the manuscript submission website at the same time as the main body of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared in high-resolution format such with a minimum resolution of 300 dots per inch for grayscale images.

    5) Tables (if relevant) – You may choose to upload a separate file with tables. Refer to the APA Publication Manual for table format; double spaced. Provide each table with an explanatory title that is intelligible without reference to the text. Provide an appropriate heading for each column in the table. Clearly indicate any units of measurement in the table. If the table is reprinted or adapted from another source, include a credit line in the table caption. Consecutively number all tables.

    6) Images (if relevant– You may choose to upload a separate file with images.

    7) Supplementary Files (if relevant– You may choose to include supplementary files, including code or other files that make your research process transparent.

    8) Data Files (if relevant– You may choose to include files that present your raw data.

    IMPORTANT: In addition to these files, please note that all manuscripts submitted to PSPR will be required to include the following:

    1. Academic Abstract and Public Abstract
    2. TOP Guideline Adherence (where relevant)
    3. Constraints on Generality Statement
    4. Citations Statement
    5. Positionality Statement

    Detailed instructions for completing these requirements can be found here: PSPR Additional Submission Guideline Requirements

    Finally, please prepare to enter the following information into the Manuscript Central portal: 


    You will be asked to include a list of 3-10 keywords to help future readers find your manuscript. You may generate your own keywords and/or select from a pre-populated list of keywords that were generated by Manuscript Central (not by the journal editors). 

    Manuscript Reporting New Quantitative Analyses

    For the small number of manuscripts that rely on new qualitative analyses, such as meta-analyses and systematic reviews, please carefully review the TOP Guidelines we have adopted for PSPR. Please review PSPR's TOP Guidelines. Please note that manuscripts not only report the results of summative inquiry (whether quantitative or qualitative) will not be accepted for publication. PSPR expects the generation of new theory, not just a summary of a field of scholarship. 

    Eligibility for SPSP Student Publication Award

    You will be asked to designate whether the first author of your manuscript is a student at the time of original submission, thereby making the manuscript eligible for the SPSP Student Publication Award. We would love to receive submissions with students as first authors.

    Word Count and Author Contact Information

    You will be required to enter the number of words, figures, and tables in the manuscript. You will also be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the quired statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including report guidelines where relevant). 

    Thank you for reading this set of guidelines and for all the work that goes into preparing your manuscript for submission. We're excited to receive it!


    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.


    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the PSPR editorial office as follows:

    Jonathan Adler, Editor:; (781) 292-2583

    7.1 Appealing the publication decision

    Editors at Sage have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

    If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at

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