Probation Journal
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Probation Journal

The Journal of Community and Criminal Justice
Published in Association with Napo, the Trade Union and Professional Association for Family Court and Probation Staff

Editor
Lol Burke Liverpool John Moores University, UK
Managing Editor
Emma Cluley National Probation Service (North West), UK

eISSN: 17413079| ISSN: 02645505|Current volume: 63|Current issue: 2 Frequency: Quarterly

Established in 1929, Probation Journal is a leading, peer reviewed journal that provides a national and international forum for sharing good practice, disseminating high quality criminal justice research and developing debate about the theory and practice of work with offenders. The Journal is read in 25 countries, and has gained a reputation for publishing material which is both of a high quality and accessible to a wide readership.

Probation Journal is published in association with Napo, the trade union and professional association for family court and probation staff and represents commitment to high standards of professionalism within the National Probation Service and wider Community and Criminal Justice Sector. However, editorial decisions are completely independent and the Journal's contents do not necessarily represent Napo policy.

View the 2016 Subscription Package which includes Probation Journal and European Journal of Probation.

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PROBATION JOURNAL BEST ARTICLE PRIZE

Probation Journal and SAGE award a prize to the best article published each year in the Probation Journal, with specific emphasis on informing policy and practice. The winning article is selected by the board in the year following publication.

Previous winners include:

Victim Awareness: Re-examining a probation fundamental
Jacky Burrows  (60/4, 2013)

Counterfeit DVD street sellers: Serious career criminals or individuals in a cyle of exploitation? by Shelly-Ann McDermott (59/3, 2012)

Re-education or recovery? Re-thinking some aspects of domestic violence perpetrator programmes by David Morran (58/1, 2011)

Who’s protecting who? by David M. Scott (57/3, 2010)

Evidencing sexual assault: Women in the witness box by Michele Burman (56/4, 2009)

Using attachment theory with offenders by Maria Ansbro (55/3, 2008)

‘Prove me the bam!’: Victimization and agency in the lives of young women who commit violent offences by Susan Batchelor (52/4, 2005)

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"During the recent decades in the complex and at times turbulent history of the Probation Service the Probation Journal has been a beacon of sound professional sense. Its commitment to the values of what 'probation' stands for, and its continuing dissemination of ideas and good practice from practitioners, academics and policy makers, has made it a source of sound advice and inspiration - in equal measure." Cedric Fullwood, Youth Justice Board

"I first read Probation Journal thirty years ago when I joined the Probation Service and I have seen it develop from little more than an in-house newsletter to a well-respected practitioner journal, keeping readers informed about key developments and debates affecting the Probation Service. It is entirely fitting that it should now join the ranks of mature professional journals and be more accessible to wider academic and criminal justice readerships, both nationally and internationally." Professor Anne Worrall, Reader in Criminology, Keele University

"I find each issue of the Probation Journal to be a valuable collection of information, research and description of current ideas and programs in working with offenders. Importantly, most of the articles are grounded in the practice of every day work with offenders. It is therefore very helpful both in my teaching of students who wish to go into the field of corrections, but also for me in my research." Denis C. Bracken, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Manitoba

"The Probation Journal remains the most accessible and timely source of information and debate about policy, practice and research in probation in the UK" Professor Gill McIvor, Stirling

"As a practitioner, the Probation Journal is an invaluable resource for keeping up to date on issues and debates within Probation and the wider Criminal Justice System." Nicola Carr, Probation Officer

"I have pleasure in stating that my involvement with the Journal over the years, as reader, occasional assessor, contributor, has convinced me of its usefulness, not only to the immediate probation service readership, but to a wider readership of those involved in the criminal justice and penal systems." Professor Herschel Prins, University of Loughborough

Electronic Access:

Probation Journal is available electronically on SAGE Journals Online at http://prb.sagepub.com/

Probation Journal was established in 1929 and now provides a national and international forum for sharing good practice, disseminating criminal justice research and developing debate about the theory and practice of work with offenders. The Journal is read in 25 countries, and has gained a reputation for publishing material which is both of a high quality and accessible to a wide readership.

Probation Journal is not limited to probation issues and welcomes submissions from those interested in the wider community justice arena (e.g. Youth Justice, Community Safety Projects, Prisons, Police, Victim Support, Voluntary Organisations). Articles which inform the realities of practice, evaluate effectiveness and genuinely enhance understanding of difference and anti-oppressive values are particularly welcome.

Probation Journal is a peer-reviewed publication. Contributions are welcomed from practitioners, academics, managers, policy-makers and others with an interest in community and criminal justice issues. Each article is anonymised before being assessed by a standing editorial board consisting of practitioners, criminal justice academics, senior and chief officers with varying areas of special interest and experience. The board is assisted by internationally renowned academic and professional assessors from across the community justice spectrum.

Probation Journal is owned by Napo, the trade union and professional association for family court and probation staff and represents commitment to high standards of professionalism within the National Probation Service and wider Community and Criminal Justice Sector. However, editorial decisions are completely independent and the Journal's contents do not necessarily represent Napo policy.

Editorial Board
Nicola Carr Queen's University Belfast, UK
Steve Collett University of Liverpool (Honorary Fellow)
Olivia Henry National Probation Service (Avon and Sommerset), UK
Pete Marston National Probation Service (North West), UK
Shelly-Ann McDermott London CRC, UK
Fergus McNeill University of Glasgow and Strathclyde, UK
Jake Philips Sheffield Hallam University, UK
David Raho London CRC, UK
Robin Tuddenham Community Safety, Waltham Forest, UK
Book Reviews Editor
Fergus McNeill University of Glasgow and Strathclyde, UK
International Advisory Board
Denis C. Bracken University of Manitoba, Canada
Jackie Craissati Psychological Approaches
Darius Fagan Department of Corrections, New Zealand
Hannah Graham Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research, UK
Ioan Durnescu University of Bucharest, Romania
Hazel Kemshall De Montfort University, UK
Shadd Maruna Rutgers University, USA
Reuben Jonathan Miller University of Michigan, USA
Michelle Phelps University of Minnesota, USA
Jo Phoenix University of Leicester, UK
Gerhard Ploeg Norwegian Correctional Services, Norway
Gwen Robinson University of Sheffield, UK
Chris Stacey Unlock, UK
Nigel Stone University of East Anglia, UK
Faye S. Taxman George Mason University, USA
Michael Teague University of Hertfordshire, UK
Chris Trotter Monash University Criminal Justice Research Consortium, USA
Maurice Vanstone Swansea University, UK
Anne Worrall Keele University, UK
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    1. Peer Review Policy
    2. Article Types
      2.1 Types of Submission
    3. Authorship
    4. How to submit your manuscript
    5. Publishing Policies
      5.1 Publication Ethics
      5.1.1 Plagiarism
      5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      5.3 Open Access and author archiving
      5.4 Promoting Anti-Discriminatory Practice
    6. Statements and conventions
      6.1 Acknowledgements
      6.2 Declaration of conflicting interests
      6.3 Funding acknowledgements
      6.4 Other statements and conventions
    7. Permissions
    8. Manuscript style
      8.1 File types
      8.2 Journal style
      8.3 Reference style
      8.4 Manuscript preparation
    9. Letting you know our decision
    10. After acceptance
      10.1 Proofs
      10.2 E-Prints
      10.3 SAGE Production
      10.4 OnlineFirst Publication
    11. Submission checklist
    12. Further information

    Probation Journal was established in 1929 to provide a national forum for sharing good practice and developing debate about the theory and practice of work with offenders. The Journal is now read by criminal justice practitioners, managers, academics and policy-makers, as well as social and health care staff in over 25 countries. It has a reputation for publishing material which is both of a high quality and accessible to a wide readership

    1. Peer review policy

    Probation Journal is a peer reviewed publication. Every submitted article is anonymised before being assessed by a standing editorial board consisting of probation practitioners, criminal justice academics, senior and chief probation officers with varying areas of special interest and experience. The board is assisted by a range of specialist academic and professional assessors. The final decision to publish or reject is taken by the editor in the light of the recommendations received.

    Probation Journal is published in association with Napo, the trade union and professional association for family court and probation staff and represents commitment to high standards of professionalism within the National Probation Service and wider Community and Criminal Justice Sector. However, editorial decisions are completely independent and the Journal's contents do not necessarily represent Napo policy.

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    2. Article types

    The Journal is published quarterly, in March, June, September and December, by SAGE Ltd. We welcome contributions on a wide range of subjects and encourage contributions from practitioners, and those with substantial practice experience, which inform and illuminate the realities of work with offenders and promote good practice. Probation Journal is not limited to probation issues and welcomes submissions from those interested in the wider community justice arena (e.g. Youth Justice, Community Safety Projects, Prisons, Police, Victim Support, Voluntary Organisations). Articles which inform the realities of practice, evaluate effectiveness and genuinely enhance understanding of difference and anti-oppressive values are particularly welcome.

    2.1 Types of Submission

    Full Length Articles: Normally around 4000-7000 words though all contributions up to a maximum of 7,500 words including references will always be considered. Apart from full-length articles, shorter Comment articles and Practice Notes are very welcome.

    Comment: The opportunity to write more informally and express opinions on any topic appropriate for Probation Journal. Ideally around 1,000-1,500 words including references, 2,500 words maximum.

    Practice Note: The opportunity to describe a recent piece of practice, practice related issues or recent practice developments in brief. Ideally around 1000-1500 words including references, 2500 words maximum.

    Practitioner Response: The opportunity for those directly linked to service delivery to respond to an article in the Probation Journal and comment on the practice related issues or implications for practice. Ideally around 1,000-1,500 words including references, 2,500 words maximum.

    Research/Reports: Accounts of recent empirical research, analysis, conference papers or working party reports, including, if possible, the availability and price of the full report or document (normally around 400-500 words, but up to 1,000 words is acceptable). Please contact the editor if you wish to submit a report.

    Other Features

    Resources: Short accounts (50-100 words) of handbooks, videos, groupwork exercises, advice and information guides, etc. Please send a sample copy of the item if possible, as it may be possible to review it more fully.

    Reviews: Though reviews are usually commissioned, we welcome unsolicited reviews of 300-600 words of recent relevant books, videos or films. If you feel that a book, etc. deserves review, please contact the book reviews editor (whose address is on the inside cover of the Journal) who will advise if one has already been requested or would otherwise be welcome. Please send reviews to the Journal email (address below).

    In Court: If you feel that a decision or legal development in your local court would be worth national coverage, please send details to the editor.

    Deadline Dates: Submissions should normally be received by the 15th March/June/September/December. However these dates can vary so please contact Emma Cluley, Managing Editor to confirm the submission deadlines.

    Originality/Suitability: Submissions will be considered on the understanding that they are original papers that have not been published or accepted for publication elsewhere. This does not exclude submissions which have had prior limited or private circulation, for example in the writer's local area. However, your submission should be prepared specifically for publication in Probation Journal and not in the same form as a document written earlier for a different purpose or local audience. Please ensure that you take account of articles on similar themes which have been published previously in the Journal.

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    3. Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once the authorization of all contributing authors has been gathered. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1.    have made a substantial contribution to the concept and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data
    2.    drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content
    3.    approved the version to be published.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section.
    Please refer to the ICMJE Authorship guidelines at http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf

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    4. How to submit your manuscript

    Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure you carefully read and adhere to all the guidelines and instructions to authors provided below. Manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Probation Journal has a fully web-based system for the submission and review of manuscripts. All submissions should be made online at the Probation Journal SAGE Track website http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/probation-journal

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    All papers must be submitted via the online system. If you would like to discuss your paper prior to submission, please contact the Editor, Lol Burke, at the following email address: prbjournal@btinternet.com

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    5. Publishing Policies

    5.1 Puublication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway

    5.1.1 Plagiarism

    Probation Journal and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of articles published in the journal. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked using duplication-checking software. Where an article is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article (removing it from the journal); taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; banning the author from publication in the journal or all SAGE journals, or appropriate legal action.

    5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    5.3 Open Access and author archiving

    Probation Journal offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

    5.4 Promoting Anti-Discriminatory Practice

    Probation Journal is committed to encouraging a diversity of perspectives, and welcomes submissions which genuinely attempt to enhance the reader's appreciation of difference and to promote anti-discriminatory values and practice. Authors should pay particular attention to avoiding discriminatory language and inferences.

    FurtherAnti-Discrimination Guidelines can be found here.

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    6. Statements and conventions

    6.1 Acknowledgements

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an ‘Acknowledgements’ section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    6.2 Declaration of conflicting interests

    Within your Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement you will be required to make a certification with respect to a declaration of conflicting interests. Probation Journal does not require a declaration of conflicting interests but recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    6.3 Funding Acknowledgement

    To comply with the guidance for Research Funders, Authors and Publishers issued by the Research Information Network (RIN), Probation Journal additionally requires all Authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit Funding Acknowledgements on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding or state in your acknowledgments that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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    7. Permissions

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway

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    8. Manuscript style

    8.1 File types

    Only electronic files conforming to the journal's guidelines will be accepted. Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are Word DOC, RTF, XLS. LaTeX files are also accepted.  Please also refer to additional guideline on submitting artwork below.

    8.2 Journal Style

    Probation Journal conforms to the SAGE house style. Review guidelines on SAGE UK House Style.

    Quotations: Quotations of about 20 words or more should be placed on a new line and indented. Place all quotations within single quotation marks. Only quotes within quotes should appear in double quotation marks.

    Abbreviations: The names of organisations, etc. should be mentioned in full on the first occasion with the abbreviated version in brackets, and thereafter in the abbreviated version. For example, ‘...women remanded for pre-sentence reports (PSRs)...’. If, say, NPS or NOMS are referred to, full stops (as in N.P.S.) are not necessary.

    Capitals: ‘Emphasis capitals’ should be avoided. Do not capitalise ‘police officer’, ‘probation service’, criminal justice system, etc.

    Diagrams And Tables: These should be used sparingly. Their location in the text should be indicated clearly in the typescript.

    8.3 Reference Style

    References: References should be presented in the SAGE Harvard system, as below:

    Books             Smith, J.S. (2014) Probation. London: Routledge.
    Chapters     Smith, J.S. (2014) ‘Preventing Reoffending’, in D. Brown, Probation. London: Routledge.
    Articles     Smith, J.S. (2014) ‘Protecting the Public’, in Probation Journal 99 (3), pp.123-132.

    Click here to review the guidelines on SAGE Harvard to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    Use footnotes sparingly. Material should normally appear in the text or as a reference.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, download the SAGE Harvard output style by following this link and or search for ‘SAGE Harvard’. Save the ens. file to the appropriate folder (normally for Windows C:\Program Files\EndNote\Styles and for Mac OS X Harddrive:Applications:EndNote:Styles). Once you’ve done this, open EndNote and choose “Select Another Style...” from the dropdown menu in the menu bar; locate and choose this new style from the following screen.

    8.4 Manuscript Preparation

    All submissions must be typed on single side A4, double-spaced with 1” margins. Pages should be numbered and the word count of the article given at the end. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point.

    Authors’ names should not appear on the submission (except in the rare instances when the identity of the author(s) is integral to an understanding of the article).

    8.4.1 Your Title, Keywords and Abstracts: Helping readers find your article online

    Titles And Sub-Headings: The suggested title should appear on the first page of the manuscript. Sub-headings are encouraged to create a more readable, accessible and logically developed paper. Please use normal sentence case type.

    Abstract: The submission should be preceded by an abstract of 50-100 words indicating the scope and intention of the piece. This helps the assessors and will be used to prepare an introductory ‘trailer’ to published articles.

    Keywords: 5-10 keywords should be supplied with each article.

    The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting SAGE’s Journal Author Gateway Guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

    8.4.2 Corresponding Author Contact details

    Contact names, relevant biographical details, including the title(s) and job description(s) of the author(s), a contact address, telephone number and, if possible, fax number and email address should be included in a covering letter to the editor or typed on a single sheet and attached to one copy of the article.
    Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    8.4.3 Guidelines for submitting artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.

    8.4.4 Guidelines for submitting supplemental files

    This journal is able to host approved supplemental materials online, alongside the full-text of articles. Supplemental files will be subjected to peer-review alongside the article.  For more information please refer to SAGE’s Guidelines for Authors on Supplemental Files

    8.4.5 English Language Editing services

    Non-English speaking authors who would like to refine their use of language in their manuscripts might consider using a professional editing service.  Visit English Language Editing Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    9. Letting you know our decision

    The editor or a member of the editorial board will be in touch with you within two-three weeks of the quarterly selection and planning meeting. The decision may be:

    • To accept the submission as it stands or with editorial changes;
    • To accept pending minor changes;
    • To accept pending more substantial revisions;
    • To suggest that you re-work and re-submit;
    • To suggest that the submission could be used within another section of the Journal;
    • To decline publication.

    Submissions are accepted subject to space and final editorial decision when page proofs are prepared. All accepted submissions will be editorially reviewed and contributors must be prepared for material to be edited. The date of publication cannot be guaranteed; the average waiting time for accepted articles is currently 12 months.

    Preliminary Consultation: If you are considering a possible submission or are considering basing an article on an existing report, dissertation, etc. please feel free to get in touch with the editor or any member of the editorial board. We will be pleased to read the original and give an opinion prior to the full assessment process.

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    10. After acceptance

    10.1 Proofs

    We will email a PDF of the proofs to the corresponding author.

    10.2 E-Prints

    SAGE provides authors with access to a PDF of their final article. For further information please visit Offprints and Reprints on our Journal Author Gateway.

    10.3 SAGE Production

    At SAGE we place an extremely strong emphasis on the highest production standards possible. We attach high importance to our quality service levels in copy-editing, typesetting, printing, and online publication (http://online.sagepub.com/). We also seek to uphold excellent author relations throughout the publication process.

    We value your feedback to ensure we continue to improve our author service levels. On publication all corresponding authors will receive a brief survey questionnaire on your experience of publishing in Probation Journal with SAGE.

    10.4 OnlineFirst Publication

    A large number of journals benefit from OnlineFirst, a feature offered through SAGE’s electronic journal platform, SAGE Journals Online. It allows final revision articles (completed articles in queue for assignment to an upcoming issue) to be hosted online prior to their inclusion in a final print and online journal issue which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. For more information please visit our OnlineFirst Fact Sheet.

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    11. Submission Checklist

    • Articles must be preceded by a 50-100 word abstract and 5-10 keywords
    • Check references for accuracy and make sure they are in the Harvard style;
    • Do not submit an article already published or accepted for publication elsewhere.
    • All submissions should be sent in via the online submission website: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/probation-journal

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    12. Futher Notice

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the Manuscript Submission process should be sent to the Editorial Office at the following email address: prbjournal@btinternet.com

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    Institutional subscriptions are available as part of the Probation Journal and European Journal of Probation Package. Click here for more information and to take out a subscription.

    Please select a format:

    Individual Subscription, Print Only


    Institutional Backfile Purchase, E-access (Content through 1998)


    Individual, Single Print Issue


    Institutional, Single Print Issue