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Corrections
From Research, to Policy, to Practice

Second Edition
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January 2020 | 584 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Written by two academic scholars and former practitioners, Corrections: From Research, to Policy, to Practice, Second Edition offers students a 21st-century look into the treatment and rehabilitative themes that drive modern-day corrections. Authors Mary K. Stohr and Anthony Walsh expertly weave together research, policy, and practice to give readers a foundational understanding of the field of corrections. Readers will gain a comprehensive and practical understanding of corrections, as well as exposure to often-overlooked topics, including correctional programming and treatment, special problem-solving courts, and comparative corrections. 

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PART 1: Foundations of Corrections
 
Chapter 1: The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections
What is Punishment?

 
Introduction: What is Corrections?

 
The Foundation of Correctional Punishment

 
The Function of Punishment

 
The Major Punishment Justifications

 
The Due Process and Crime Control Models

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 2: Early Corrections: From Ancient Times to Colonial Jails and Prisons
Narrative of Three Men Placed in the Missouri State Prison for Helping Slaves Escape via the Underground Railroad (1847), by George Thompson

 
Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections

 
Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

 
Early Punishments in Westernized Countries

 
Enlightenment—Paradigm Shift

 
Colonial Jails and Prisons

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 3: Correctional History: Early Prisons to Corrections Today
Jim Crow Treatment in Prisons

 
Introduction: The Grand Reforms

 
Early Modern Prisons

 
Emerging Prison Models

 
Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed

 
The Renewed Promise of Reform

 
American Corrections in the 20th and 21st Centuries

 
Themes That Prevail in Correctional History

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 4: Ethics and Corrections
A Novice Bows to Subcultural Pressure, by Mary K. Stohr

 
Introduction: To Do the right Thing!

 
Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

 
Why People Behave Unethically

 
How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and Promote Ethical Work Practices

 
War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
PART 2: The Correctional System
 
Chapter 5: Sentencing: The Application of Punishment
Vindictive Versus Sensible Sentencing

 
Introduction: What is Sentencing?

 
Types of Sentences

 
Plea Bargaining

 
Impact Statements at Sentencing

 
Structuring Judicial Sentencing Choices

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 6: Jails and Detention Centers
A Mentally Ill Inmate in the Dona Ana County Jail, New Mexico

 
Introduction: The Community Institution

 
Jail Inmates and Their Processing

 
Trends in Jail Populations

 
Medical Problems

 
Suicides, Gangs, and Sexual Violence in Jails

 
Innovations in Jails

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 7: Special Problem-Solving Courts in Corrections
Veterans Courts in Action

 
Introduction: What Are Problem-Solving Courts?

 
Drug Courts

 
Mental Health Courts

 
Veterans Courts

 
Domestic Violence Courts

 
Community Courts

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 8: Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediary Sanctions
Betty's Reproductive Rights Versus the Protection of Children and Society

 
Introduction: The Origins of Probation

 
Probation Today

 
Why Do We Need Community Corrections?

 
The Probation Officer Role

 
Strategies to Reduce Recidivism

 
Intermediate Sanctions

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 9: Prisons and the Correctional Client
Kitchen Supervisor Sexually Abuses Two Male Inmates

 
Introduction: The State of Prisons

 
Prison Organizations

 
Prison Value?

 
Attributes of the Prison That Shape the Experience

 
The Prison Subculture

 
Violence

 
Solutions: Strategies to Reduce Violence, Mature  Coping, and Social Support

 
Special Populations

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 10: Classification and Assessment of Offenders
The Challenges of Classification

 
Introduction: What Is Classification and Assessment?

 
The History of Classification and Assessment

 
Classification Today

 
Assessment and Classification in Community Corrections

 
The Case Management Classification and Supervision Levels

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 11: Correctional Programming and Treatment
Life’s Turning Points

 
Introduction: The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation

 
Evidence-Based Practices

 
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

 
Substance Abuse Programming

 
Anger Management

 
Sex Offenders and Their Treatment

 
Mentally Ill Offenders

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 12: Parole and Prisoner Reentry
The Perils of Parole

 
Introduction: What Is Parole?

 
Parole Boards

 
What Goes In Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry Into the Community

 
Determining Parole Success

 
Approaches to Parole

 
Concluding Remarks on Reentry and Recidivism

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
PART 3: Correctional Administration
 
Chapter 13: Correctional Organizations and Their Management
Responses to Realignment

 
Introduction: Correctional Organizations and  Their  Management

 
Organizational-Level Factors That Affect Correctional Operations

 
Management Theories

 
Elements of Effective Organizations

 
Organizational Culture

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 14: The corrections Experience for Staff
John’s Tragic Story, by Mary K. Stohr

 
Introduction: What Is a Profession?

 
The State of the Work in Correctional Institutions and Programs

 
Why Require More Education and Training?

 
Individual-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

 
Correctional Roles

 
The Subculture and Socialization

 
Staff Interactions With Inmates

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
PART 4: Correctional Clients
 
Chapter 15: Women and Corrections
Supervising Is Different for Women, by Mary K. Stohr

 
Introduction: Women and Corrections

 
History and Growth

 
Current Figures on the Number of Women and Girls in Corrections

 
Females in Corrections: Needs, Programming, Abuse, and Adjustment

 
Female Correctional Officers

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 16: Minorities and Corrections
Undocumented Workers and Their Side of the Story

 
Introduction: Minorities and Corrections

 
A Legacy of Racism

 
The Connection Between Class and Race or Ethnicity

 
Minorities: Policies and Practices That Have Resulted in Increased Incarceration

 
Minorities: Adjustment to Incarceration

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 17: Juveniles and Corrections
Too Young for Life

 
Introduction: Delinquency and Status Offending

 
The Extent of Delinquency

 
The Juvenile Brain and Juvenile Behavior

 
History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice

 
Processing Juvenile Offenders

 
Juvenile Community Corrections

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
PART 5: Special Topics in Corrections
 
Chapter 18: Legal Issues in Corrections
Prison Without Law

 
Introduction: Legal Issues

 
The Rule of Law

 
Constitutional Rights

 
The Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders

 
Curtailing Prisoner Petitions

 
Legal Issues in Probation and Parole

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 19: The Death Penalty
A Very Unusual, Very Expensive Serial Killer

 
Introduction: The Death Penalty and Public Opinion

 
Methods of Execution Used in the United States

 
Challenges to the Death Penalty

 
Racial Disparity in Death Sentences

 
Women and the Death Penalty

 
The Death Penalty and Mental Disability and Mental Illness

 
The Innocence Revolution

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 20: Comparative Corrections: Punishment in Other Countries
The Debate Over Corporal Punishment

 
Introduction: The Importance of Comparative Corrections

 
The United Kingdom and the Common Law System

 
France and the Civil Law System

 
China and the Socialist Law System

 
Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Law System

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 
 
Chapter 21: Corrections in the 21st Century
Can We Cure Criminality?

 
Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have Hope for the Future

 
Punitive Policies Yield Overuse of Corrections

 
Decarceration

 
Professionalization

 
Corrections Is a Relationship Business

 
Privatization

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Summary

 
Key Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Useful Internet Sites

 

Supplements

Student Study Site
SAGE EDGE FOR STUDENTS enhances learning in an easy-to-use environment that offers:
  • Mobile-friendly flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, and make it easy to maximize your study time, anywhere, anytime; 
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes that allow you to assess how much you’ve learned and where you need to focus your attention;
  • Chapter summaries with learning objectives that reinforce the most important material; 
  • Chapter-specific study questions that allow you to engage with the material; and
  • Video resources that bring concepts to life, are tied to learning objectives, and make learning easier.
Instructor Resource Site
SAGE COURSEPACKS FOR INSTRUCTORS makes it easy to import our quality content into your school’s LMS. Intuitive and simple to use, it allows you to

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For use in: Blackboard, Canvas, Brightspace by Desire2Learn (D2L), and Moodle
 
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SAGE Coursepacks includes:

  • Our content delivered directly into your LMS 
  • An intuitive, simple format that makes it easy to integrate the material into your course with minimal effort 
  • Pedagogically robust assessment tools that foster review, practice, and critical thinking, and offer a more complete way to measure student engagement, including:
    • Diagnostic chapter tests that identify opportunities for improvement, track student progress, and ensure mastery of key learning objectives
    • Test banks built on Bloom’s Taxonomy that provide a diverse range of test items with ExamView test generation
    • Instructions on how to use and integrate the comprehensive assessments and resources provided
  • Chapter-specific discussion questions to help launch engaging classroom interaction while reinforcing important content 
  • Assignable SAGE Premium Video (available via the interactive eBook version, linked through SAGE Coursepacks) that is tied to learning objectives, and curated exclusively for this text to bring concepts to life and appeal to different learning styles, featuring: 
    • Corresponding multimedia assessment options that automatically feed to your gradebook  
    • A comprehensive, downloadable, easy-to-use Media Guide in the Coursepack for every video resource listing the chapter to which the video content is tied, matching learning objective(s), a helpful description of the video content, and assessment question
  • Video resources that bring concepts to life, are tied to learning objectives, and make learning easier 
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that offer flexibility when creating multimedia lectures so you don’t have to start from scratch but you can customize to your exact needs 
  • Lecture notes that summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help you with preparation for lectures and class discussions 
  • Integrated links to the interactive eBook that make it easy for your students to maximize their study time with this “anywhere, anytime” mobile-friendly version of the text. It also offers access to more digital tools and resources, including SAGE Premium Video 
  • All tables and figures from the textbook.

"The ideas in this textbook are perfect for all CJ students. I would strongly recommend this textbook for anyone who wants an in-depth look into corrections."

Nerissa James
Miami Dade College

"This is a comprehensive text for an introductory or general corrections course. The text offers unique content as well as unique features not found in other texts, as well as useful instructor and student resources."

Ashley Blackburn
University of Houston

"A mix between introductory corrections textbook, and an upper level textbook. It provides the basic information necessary to understand what corrections is, but then looks at application and reality."

Kimberly Hufgard
University of Akron
Key features
NEW TO THIS EDITION: 
  • New content includes:
    • coverage of immigration detention centers;
    • discussions of the First Step Act;
    • the “paradox of probation”; and
    • key changes in the probation/parole practices. 
  • A streamlined organization makes the book more relevant while maintaining comprehensive coverage of correctional topics.
  • Accompanying SAGE Premium Video now includes Criminal Justice in Practice Videos. These animated decision-making scenarios challenge students to explore how they would respond to real-world situations faced by criminal justice professionals.
  • Updated facts, figures, and graphs keep readers up to date.

KEY FEATURES:

 

  • Accompanying SAGE Premium Video brings concepts to life.
    • Career Videos feature criminal justice professionals discussing their day-to-day work and current issues related to technology, diversity, and cutting-edge developments in the field.
    • Feature Videos capture insightful interviews with former inmates who discuss their experiences in prison. 
  • Test Your Knowledge questions allow students assess what they already know about corrections before reading chapters, enhancing their studying and learning.
  • Learning objectives identify what students should be able to do at the completion of chapters.
  • Chapter-opening vignettes provide a ground-level view of corrections from the perspective of correctional practitioners, inmates, and others to show how research, policy, and practice play out in the real world.
  • Policy and Research boxes illustrate key points related to past, current, and future policy issues and discuss how research has informed modern practices to improve future policies and procedures. 
  • In Focus boxes detail areas of special interest related to the chapter's content with an extensive photo and illustration program.
  • Ethical Issue sections prepare students for common ethical dilemmas relating to corrections and encourage them to think critically about the need for ethical behavior.
  • Perspective From a Practitioner boxes give students a real-world perspective on what it's like to work in a wide array of careers related to corrections.
  • End-of-chapter summaries, key terms, discussion questions, and useful Internet sites allow students to review chapter content to master the material.

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