# Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics

- Neil J. Salkind
- Bruce B. Frey - University of Kansas, USA

**Seventh Edition**, Neil J. Salkind’s bestselling

**Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics**with new co-author Bruce B. Frey teaches an often intimidating subject with a humorous, personable, and informative approach that reduces statistics anxiety. With instruction in SPSS®, the authors guide students through basic and advanced statistical procedures, from correlation and graph creation to analysis of variance, regression, non-parametric tests, and more. The

**Seventh Edition**includes new real-world examples, additional coverage on multiple regression and power and effect size, and a robust interactive eBook with video tutorials and animations of key concepts. In the end, students who (think they) hate statistics will understand how to explain the results of many statistical analyses and won’t be intimidated by basic statistical tasks.

**A Complete Teaching & Learning Package**

SAGE Premium Video

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*Included in the Interactive eBook!*

**SAGE Premium Video**tools and resources boost comprehension and bolster analysis. Videos include

**animated Core Concepts in Stats Videos, Lightboard Lecture Videos from Bruce B. Frey, and tutorial videos for end-of-chapter of SPSS problems.**

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Interactive eBook

Interactive eBook

*Includes access to SAGE Premium Video, multimedia tools, and much more!*Save when you bundle the Interactive eBook with the new edition. Order using bundle ISBN: 978-1-5443-9339-1.

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What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Why Statistics? |

A 5-Minute History of Statistics |

Statistics: What It Is (and Isn’t) |

What Am I Doing in a Statistics Class? |

Ten Ways to Use This Book (and Learn Statistics at the Same Time!) |

About the Book’s Features |

Key to Difficulty Icons |

Glossary |

Summary |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Computing the Mean |

Computing the Median |

Computing the Mode |

When to Use What Measure of Central Tendency (and All You Need to Know About Scales of Measurement for Now) |

Using SPSS to Compute Descriptive Statistics |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Why Understanding Variability Is Important |

Computing the Range |

Computing the Standard Deviation |

Computing the Variance |

Using SPSS to Compute Measures of Variability |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Why Illustrate Data? |

Ten Ways to a Great Figure (Eat Less and Exercise More?) |

First Things First: Creating a Frequency Distribution |

The Plot Thickens: Creating a Histogram |

The Next Step: A Frequency Polygon |

Other Cool Ways to Chart Data |

Using the Computer (SPSS, That Is) to Illustrate Data |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

What Are Correlations All About? |

Computing a Simple Correlation Coefficient |

Understanding What the Correlation Coefficient Means |

Squaring the Correlation Coefficient: A Determined Effort |

Other Cool Correlations |

Parting Ways: A Bit About Partial Correlation |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

An Introduction to Reliability and Validity |

Reliability: Doing It Again Until You Get It Right |

Different Types of Reliability |

How Big Is Big? Finally: Interpreting Reliability Coefficients |

Validity: Whoa! What Is the Truth? |

A Last Friendly Word |

Validity and Reliability: Really Close Cousins |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

So You Want to Be a Scientist?.?.?. |

Samples and Populations |

The Null Hypothesis |

The Research Hypothesis |

What Makes a Good Hypothesis? |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Why Probability? |

The Normal Curve (a.k.a. the Bell-Shaped Curve) |

Our Favorite Standard Score: The z Score |

Fat and Skinny Frequency Distributions |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

The Concept of Significance |

Significance Versus Meaningfulness |

An Introduction to Inferential Statistics |

An Introduction to Tests of Significance |

Be Even More Confident |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Introduction to the One-Sample Z Test |

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge |

Computing the Z Test Statistic |

Using SPSS to Perform a Z Test |

Special Effects: Are Those Differences for Real? |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Introduction to the t Test for Independent Samples |

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge |

Computing the t Test Statistic |

The Effect Size and t(ea) for Two |

Using SPSS to Perform a t Test |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Introduction to the t Test for Dependent Samples |

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge |

Computing the t Test Statistic |

Using SPSS to Perform a Dependent t Test |

The Effect Size for t(ea) for Two (Again) |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Introduction to Analysis of Variance |

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge |

Different Flavors of Analysis of Variance |

Computing the F Test Statistic |

Using SPSS to Compute the F Ratio |

The Effect Size for One-Way ANOVA |

Real World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Introduction to Factorial Analysis of Variance |

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge |

A New Flavor of ANOVA |

The Main Event: Main Effects in Factorial ANOVA |

Even More Interesting: Interaction Effects |

Using SPSS to Compute the F Ratio |

Computing the Effect Size for Factorial ANOVA |

Real World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Introduction to Testing the Correlation Coefficient |

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge |

Computing the Test Statistic |

Using SPSS to Compute a Correlation Coefficient (Again) |

Real World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Introduction to Linear Regression |

What Is Prediction All About? |

The Logic of Prediction |

Drawing the World’s Best Line (for Your Data) |

How Good Is Your Prediction? |

Using SPSS to Compute the Regression Line |

The More Predictors the Better? Maybe |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics |

Introduction to the Goodness of Fit (One-Sample) Chi-Square |

Computing the Goodness of Fit Chi-Square Test Statistic |

Introduction to the Test of Independence Chi-Square |

Computing the Test of Independence Chi-Square Test Statistic |

Using SPSS to Perform Chi-Square Tests |

Other Nonparametric Tests You Should Know About |

Real-World Stats |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Multivariate Analysis of Variance |

Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance |

Analysis of Covariance |

Multiple Regression |

Meta-analysis |

Discriminant Analysis |

Factor Analysis |

Path Analysis |

Structural Equation Modeling |

Summary |

What You Will Learn in This Chapter |

Our Sample Data Set—Who Doesn’t Love Babies? |

Counting Outcomes |

Pivot Tables and Cross-Tabulation: Finding Hidden Patterns |

Summary |

Time to Practice |

### Supplements

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**animated Core Concepts in Stats Videos and tutorial videos for end-of-chapter of SPSS® problems** **Lightboard Lecture Videos**from Bruce B. Frey (one short lecture video per chapter) that demonstrate each statistical procedure, captured using innovative LED glass technology

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*“ . . . Salkind and Frey’s Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics, Seventh Edition, takes the worrisome topic of statistics and turns it into an enjoyable enterprise.”*

**University of Cincinnati**

*“Of all the statistics textbooks that I have reviewed, Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics is by far the best.”*

**University of Dallas**

*“ [Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics] eases students into concepts with clear intention for each chapter and prompts them to connect everything they've learned.” *

**Mississippi State University**

*“This [Seventh Edition] continues to be the best textbook for students not comfortable with statistics. While not sacrificing depth, the text makes difficult topics approachable. This texts meets my students where they are and allows them to gain the needed knowledge and appreciation of statistics.” *

**Cortland University**

*“In its Seventh Edition, Salkind and Frey’s book provides a scaffolding journey for anyone that has a desire to learn the principles of statistics. This book begins with a foundation of defining the rudimentary principles of measurement, explains the principles of descriptive statistics, and disentangles the challenging principles of hypothesis testing and inferential statistics. It uses a very easy reading format, and it contains clear instructions to running all statistical procedures in SPSS^{®}. The book has an amazing retrieval system of resources (data sets, problem exercises and more) that revitalizes teaching and learning. Therefore, I recommend this book without reservation.” *

**University of Michigan – Flint**

*“Two of my favorite statistical authors being together in one book may be a dream come true. Both Salkind's and Frey's texts have been a survival manual both for me and for my students. There are very few texts that carry both the weight of statistical grandeur along with the depth of content like this new text does. This is a masterpiece of statistical reference data that meshes the best parts of both authors and fills in the gap following the passing of Salkind. I can't wait to get this new text into the hands of my students and I know that this new book is going to become a foundational pillar in all of my classes.” *

**Northwest Nazarene University**

*“This book has a successful conversion mission. Indeed, it succeeds in converting statistics-shy students into statistics-savvy ardent learners. The re-appearance of this mind-catching treasure is a major plus in the effective teaching and easy learning of an introductory course in descriptive and inferential statistics.” *

**University of Texas at El Paso**

*“Salkind and Frey have written an informative and comprehensive text for the introductory statistics course that is also funny and disarming. My graduate students - many of whom exhibit an initial wariness toward math courses and long-dormant math skills - have found it to be an unexpected pleasure and an accessible read.” *

**Boston University**

*“Many students appear unaware that they are using statistics and research methods in their daily lives. When I mention statistics in the research methods course, some get very anxious and remind me that they are not ‘math people.’ Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics is a helpful supplemental text for a research methods course. It provides a different perspective regarding how statistics are used and helps students retrieve and build on their statistics knowledge. The text uses humor and interesting examples and helps illustrate why certain research issues are important.” *

**Mississippi State University**